Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1899-1956) was a condominium (₳|₩) where authority was shared between the United Kingdom and Egypt.
The administration is based on the provisions of a convention signed on the 19th of January 1899 between the British and Egyptian governments. The authority of the sovereign powers is represented by a governor-general appointed by Egypt on the recommendation of Great Britain. In 1910 a council consisting of four ex officio members and from two to four non-official nominated members was created to advise the governor-general in the exercise of his executive and legislative functions. Subject to the power of veto retained by the governor-general all questions are decided by a majority of the council.
Each of the mudirias into which the country is divided is presided over by a mudir (governor) responsible to the central govern ment at Khartum. The governor-general, the chiefs of the various departments of state and the mudirs are all Europeans, the majority being British military officers The minor officials are nearly all Egyptians or Sudanese. Revenue is derived as to about 60% from the customs and revenue-earning departments (i.e. steamers, railways, posts and telegraphs), and as to the rest from taxes on land, date-trees and animals, from royalties on gum, ivory and ostrich feathers, from licences to sell spirits, carry arms, etc, and from fees paid for the shooting of game. Expenditure is largely on public works, education, justice and the army. Financial affairs are managed from Khartum, but control over expenditure is exercised by the Egyptian financial department. The revenue, which in 1898 was £E 35,000, for the first time exceeded a million in 1909, when the amount realized was £E 1,040,200. The expenditure in 1909 was £E 1,153,000. Financially the government had been, up to 1910, largely dependent upon Egypt. In the years 1901-1909 £E4,378,000 was advanced from Cairo for public works in the Sudan; in the same period a further sum of about £E 2,750,000 had been found by Egypt to meet annual deficits in the Sudan budgets.
- 22x20px Republic of the Sudan: North Sudan (From 2011)
- 22x20px Republic of the Sudan (1956-2011)
- Flag Mahdist Sudan
- Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.)