1945-1991: Cold War world Wiki
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A satellite image of Banjul, Gambia.

A satellite image of Gambia.

A dry season image of Senegal and Gambia.

A wet season image of Senegal and Gambia.

A satellite image of Guinea-Bissau.

A 1881 colonial map of Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Senegal, Sierra Leonine, Liberia and the native tribal states like the Bamiko (Bamako) state.

An 1885 map showing the Bechuanaland Protectorate prior to the creation of the crown colony of British Bechuanaland and the Heligoland–Zanzibar Treaty.

The phenomena[]

Colonial powers arbitrarily divided Africa's tribes and nations because of ease of administration, ceasing resources such as lakes and native trading hubs, looking after friendly native factions, out doing rival colonial powers and local security issues. 

The Tswanas' exsample[]

The Tswana (Tswana: Batswana, singular Motswana) are a Bantu-speaking ethnic group who are native to Southern Africa. The Tswana language belongs to the Bantu group of the Niger–Congo languages. Ethnic Tswana made up approximately 79% of the population of Botswana in 2011.

In the nineteenth century, a common spelling and pronunciation of Batswana was Bechuana. Europeans therefore referred to the area inhabited by the Tswana as Bechuanaland. In the Tswana language, however, Botswana is the name for the country of the Tswana.

The tribes[]

The three main branches of the Tswana tribe formed during the 14th century. Three brothers, Kwena, Ngwaketse and Ngwato, broke away from their father, Chief Molope, to establish their own tribes in Molepolole, Kanye and Serowe, probably in response to drought and expanding populations in search of pasture and arable land.

The principal Tswana tribes are the:

  1. Bakgatla
  2. Bakwena
  3. Balete
  4. Bangwato
  5. BaNgwaketse
  6. Barolong
  7. Batawana
  8. Batlokwa
  9. Bahurutshe
  10. Batlhaping
  11. Banogeng
  12. Batlhalerwa
  13. Bakalanga

Botswana[]

Botswana (/bɒtˈswɑːnə/), officially the Republic of Botswana (Tswana: Lefatshe la Botswana), is a landlocked country located in Southern Africa. The citizens refer to themselves as Batswana (singular: Motswana). Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted its new name after becoming independent within the Commonwealth on 30 September 1966. Since then, it has maintained a strong tradition of stable representative democracy, with a consistent record of uninterrupted democratic elections.

The Bechuanaland Protectorate /bɛˈtʃwɑːnəˌlænd/ was a protectorate established on 31 March 1885, by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in southern Africa to prevent possible expatiation by the racist Germans and Afrikaners. It became the Republic of Botswana on 30 September 1966.

The modern republic of Botswana (formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland) is named for the Tswana people. The country's eight major tribes speak Tswana. All have a traditional Paramount Chief, styled Kgosikgolo, who is entitled to a seat in the Ntlo ya Dikgosi (an advisory body to the country's Parliament). The Tswana dynasties are all related.

South Africa[]

The largest number of ethnic Tswana people actually live in South Africa. They are one of the largest ethnic groups in the country, and the Tswana language is one of eleven official languages in South Africa. Until 1994, South African Tswana people were nationally citizens of Bophuthatswana, one of the few Bantustans (or Homelands, roughly analogous to American Indian reservations) as planned by the Apartheid regime, 1948–1994. There were over 4 million Tswana speakers in the country in 2012.

Bophuthatswana (/ˌboʊpuːtətˈswɑːnə/, meaning "gathering of the Tswana people"), officially the Republic of Bophuthatswana (Tswana: Repaboleki ya Bophuthatswana; Afrikaans: Republiek van Bophuthatswana), was a Bantustan ("homeland"; an area set aside for members of a specific ethnicity) and nominal parliamentary democracy in the northwestern region of South Africa. Its seat of government was Mmabatho.

Bophuthatswana was the first area to be declared an independent state whose territory constituted a scattered patchwork of individual enclaves. During its last days of existence, events taking place within its borders led to the weakening and split of right-wing Afrikaner resistance towards democratizing South Africa.

In 1994, it was reintegrated into South Africa, and its territory was distributed among the new provinces of the Orange Free State (now Free State), Northern Cape, and North West Province.

Elsewhere[]

Tswana are notable minorities in a number of neighbouring countries, especially Namibia and Zimbabwe.

Other cases[]

Huassa[]

  1. Nigeria
  2. Niger
  3. Benin
  4. Ivory Coast
  5. Cameroon
  6. Chad
  7. Ghana

Shona[]

  1. Zimbabwe
  2. Mozambique
  3. Botswana
  4. Zambia
  5. South Africa

Haratin[]

  1. Mauritania
  2. Morocco
  3. Western Sahara
  4. Algeria
  5. Tunisia
  6. Libya

Toubu[]

  1. Chad
  2. Libya
  3. Niger
  4. Sudan

Bambara[]

  1. Mali
  2. Guinea
  3. Burkina Faso
  4. Senegal.

Also see[]

  1. Africa
  2. Portuguese Colonial War

Sources[]

  1. https://www.wikiwand.com/en/Toubou_people
  2. https://www.wikiwand.com/en/Hausa_people
  3. https://www.wikiwand.com/en/Shona_people
  4. https://www.wikiwand.com/en/Haratin
  5. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tswana_people
  6. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tl%C3%B4kwa_tribe
  7. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rolong_tribe
  8. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kalanga_people
  9. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Batlhaping_tribe
  10. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mangwato_tribe
  11. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balete_people
  12. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Koena_tribe
  13. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bechuanaland_Protectorate
  14. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-13041658
  15. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-13041658
  16. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Tswana
  17. https://images.search.yahoo.com/search/images;_ylt=A0LEVy6f5dlY3ZMAmDxXNyoA;_ylu=X3oDMTEydWxicGdtBGNvbG8DYmYxBHBvcwMxBHZ0aWQDQjM2MDRfMQRzZWMDc2M-?p=Tswana&fr=yset_chr_cnewtab
  18. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Tswana
  19. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/Tswana
  20. http://www.sahistory.org.za/article/tswana
  21. http://www.omniglot.com/language/phrases/tswana.php
  22. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tswana_people
  23. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Botswana
  24. http://www.generalknowledgefacts.com/2013/09/bechuanaland-was-former-name-of-botswana.html
  25. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bophuthatswana
  26. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-13041658
  27. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tswana_language
  28. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bambara_people
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