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Sokol torpedo

Workers loading torpedoes to Polish Submarine ORP "Sokół" - British U-class submarine ind 1943.

Soviet-R-12-nuclear-ballistic missile

Soviet R-12 (SS-4 Sandal) intermediate-range nuclear ballistic missile (NATO designation SS-4) in Moscow.

F-4B VF-111 dropping bombs on Vietnam

8 of 28 A U.S. Navy F-4B from VF-111 dropping bombs over Vietnam, 1971.

Bombs History-0

Bombs History-0

A bomb is any of a range of explosive weapons that only rely on the exothermic reaction of an explosive material to provide an extremely sudden and violent release of energy (an explosive device). Detonations inflict damage principally through ground- and atmosphere-transmitted mechanical stress, the impact and penetration of pressure-driven projectiles, pressure damage, and explosion-generated effects. One specific example is a nuclear weapon. This employs chemical-based explosives to initiate a much larger nuclear-based explosion. Bombs have been in use since the 11th century in Song Dynasty China.

Absolutely Massive Explosion in Ukraine

Absolutely Massive Explosion in Ukraine

Subscribe to GlobalLeaks: http://goo.gl/bY5w6 A massive blast just riddled through Donetsk Ukraine, breaking windows and causing panic throughout the city. It appears the explosion was caused by an artillery shell hitting a rebel controlled chemical plant. (Video strictly for news/educational purposes). ___ What is GlobalLeaks? Founded before 2012, the GlobalLeaks News Channel has grown into a popular current events and informational platform on YouTube and across the internet. We strive to show people the events left out of the mainstream media. The events, that in many cases are shaping our world. If you'd like to keep up to date be sure to join us and subscribe. ___ --- Follow us on twitter: https://twitter.com/globalleak --- --- Follow us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/globalleaksnews If you have any questions or would like to send us footage, contact us directly at globalleaksemail@gmail.com or visit our website http://globalleaks.com

Top 10 Demolitions Gone Wrong-0

Top 10 Demolitions Gone Wrong-0

Top 10 Demolitions Gone Wrong 10 Perfect examples of how not to demolish a building/fail completely. We hope you enjoy these shocking examples of the best demolition fails on the internet/demolitions gone wrong! Some our funny, some were tragic. Thanks to the following sources. To see the full clip of any of the top ten and for more info on them, visit the below links. 10. Demolition Fail Compilation, best demolition failures https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DDuUR7l3bgc 9. Demolition gone wrong ( buildings ) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ofvWWp_Pi88 8. Fail Building Demolition https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fNRLkJUXUxI 7. Philips tower implode FAIL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MOj2MO-BYfE 6. failed building demolition https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Sa6z41EOt4o 5. Australia Implosion Fail Demolition expert Building leaning to one side https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z27UBazwPrI 4. Demolition Gone Wrong https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QP2pIwE4LLM 3. Demolition Goes Wrong https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UsePUn5-88c 2. Chinese Demolition Fail https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lO9kAw3GR3A 1. Demolition Fail Compilation, best demolition failures https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DDuUR7l3bgc Thanks! Visit us at DailyTopTens.com.

What is an 'explosion'Edit

NTS - BEEF - WATUSI

An detonation of 16 TNT equivalent tons of explosives.

F1000016

Black smoke from an explosion rising after a bomb detonation inside the outside Nahr al-Bared, Lebanon.

Sanduo 1st Road after Explosion Record 20140811-021

The damaged roads after gas explosions in Kaohsiung, Taiwan on 31 July 2014.

An explosion is a rapid increase in volume and release of energy in an extreme manner, usually with the generation of high temperatures and the release of gases. Supersonic explosions created by high explosives are known as detonations and travel via supersonic shock waves. Subsonic explosions are created by low explosives through a slower burning process known as deflagration. When caused by a man-made device such as an exploding rocket or firework, the audible component of an explosion is referred to as its "report" (which can also be used as a verb, e.g., "the rocket reported loudly upon impact".)

Some explorations are as a result of errors, accidents and sabotage and technical faults. A gas explosion is an explosion resulting from a gas leak in the presence of an ignition source. The principal explosive gases are natural gas, methane, propane and butane, because they are widely used for heating purposes. However, many other gases, like hydrogen, are combustible and have caused explosions in the past. Industrial gas explosions can be prevented with the use of intrinsic safety barriers to prevent ignition.

Types of blastEdit

Thermobaric weapons and air-fuel explosionsEdit

BLU-96 Fuel-Air Explosive Bomb

BLU-96 Fuel-Air Explosive Bomb

Fuel-Air Explosives or FAE disperse an aerosol cloud of fuel which is ignited by an embedded detonator to produce an explosion. The rapidly expanding wave front due to overpressure flattens all objects within close proximity of the epicenter of the aerosol fuel cloud, and produces debilitating damage well beyond the flattened area. The main destructive force of FAE is high overpressure, useful against soft targets such as minefields, armored vehicles, aircraft parked in the open, people and bunkers.

OverviewEdit

A thermobaric weapon is a type of explosive that utilizes oxygen from the surrounding air to generate an intense, high-temperature explosion, and in practice the blast wave typically produced by such a weapon is of a significantly longer duration than a conventional condensed explosive. The fuel-air bomb is one of the most well-known types of thermobaric weapons.

Most conventional explosives consist of a fuel-oxidizer premix (gunpowder, for example, contains 25% fuel and 75% oxidizer), whereas thermometric weapons are almost 100% fuel, so thermobaric weapons are significantly more energetic than conventional condensed explosives of equal weight. Their reliance on atmospheric oxygen makes them unsuitable for use underwater, at high altitude, and in adverse weather. They do, however, cause considerably more destruction when used inside confined environments, such as foxholes, tunnels, bunkers, and caves—partly due to the sustained blast wave, and partly by consuming the available oxygen inside. Thermobaric weapons have the longest sustained blast wave and most destructive force of any known explosive, excluding nuclear weapons.

There are many different types of thermobaric weapons rounds that can be fitted to hand-held launchers.

Such weapons were developed in the 1960s in the Soviet Union and US; however, the first attempts had previously been undertaken during the Second World War by the German Luftwaffe, their inventor being Mario Zippermayr.

The Soviet armed forces extensively developed FAE weapons, such as the RPO-A, and Russia used them in Chechnya.

The antipersonnel effect of the blast wave is more severe in foxholes and tunnels, and in enclosed spaces, such as bunkers and caves.

Fuel-air explosives were first developed, and used in Vietnam, by the United States. Soviet scientists, however, quickly developed their own FAE weapons, which were reportedly used against China in the Sino-Soviet border conflict and in Afghanistan. Since then, research and development has continued and currently Russian forces field a wide array of third-generation FAE warheads.

TerminologyEdit

The term thermobaric is derived from the Greek words for "heat" and "pressure": thermobarikos (θερμοβαρικός), from thermos (θερμός), hot + baros (βάρος), weight, pressure + suffix -ikos (-ικός), suffix -ic.

Other terms used for this family of weapons are high-impulse thermobaric weapons (HITs), heat and pressure weapons, vacuum bombs, or fuel-air explosives (FAE or FAX).

Chemical reactions and ballistic mechanismsEdit

In contrast to condensed explosive, where oxidation in a confined region produces a blast front from essentially a point source, a flame front accelerates to a large volume producing pressure fronts both within the mixture of fuel and oxidant and then in the surrounding air.

Thermobaric explosives apply the principles underlying accidental unconfined vapor cloud explosions, which include those from dispersions of flammable dusts and droplets. Previously, such explosions were most often encountered in flour mills and their storage containers, and later in coal mines; but, now, most commonly in discharged oil tankers and refineries, including an incident at Buncefield in the UK in 2005 where the blast wave woke people 150 kilometres (93 mi) from its center.

A typical weapon consists of a container packed with a fuel substance, in the center of which is a small conventional-explosive "scatter charge". Fuels are chosen on the basis of the exothermicity of their oxidation, ranging from powdered metals, such as aluminium or magnesium, to organic materials, possibly with a self-contained partial oxidant. The most recent development involves the use of nanofuels.

Nano-thermite or super-thermite is a metastable intermolecular composite (MICs) characterized by a particle size of its main constituents, a metal and a metal oxide, under 100 nanometers. This allows for high and customizable reaction rates. Nano-thermites contain an oxidizer and a reducing agent, which are intimately mixed on the nanometer scale. MICs, including nano-thermitic materials, are a type of reactive materials investigated for military use, as well as for general applications involving propellants, explosives, and pyrotechnics.

What distinguishes MICs from traditional thermites is that the oxidizer and a reducing agent, normally iron oxide and aluminium, are in the form of extremely fine powders (nanoparticles). This dramatically increases the reactivity relative to micrometre-sized powder thermite. As the mass transport mechanisms that slow down the burning rates of traditional thermites are not so important at these scales, the reaction proceeds much more quickly.

It's effectsEdit

A Human Rights Watch report of 1 February 2000 quotes a study made by the US Defense Intelligence Agency:

"The [blast] kill mechanism against living targets is unique–and unpleasant.... What kills is the pressure wave, and more importantly, the subsequent rarefaction [vacuum], which ruptures the lungs.... If the fuel deflagrates but does not detonate, victims will be severely burned and will probably also inhale the burning fuel. Since the most common FAE fuels, ethylene oxide and propylene oxide, are highly toxic, undetonated FAE should prove as lethal to personnel caught within the cloud as most chemical agents."

According to a U.S. Central Intelligence Agency study, "the effect of an FAE explosion within confined spaces is immense. Those near the ignition point are obliterated. Those at the fringe are likely to suffer many internal, and thus invisible injuries, including burst eardrums and crushed inner ear organs, severe concussions, ruptured lungs and internal organs, and possibly blindness."

Another Defense Intelligence Agency document speculates that because the "shock and pressure waves cause minimal damage to brain tissue…it is possible that victims of FAEs are not rendered unconscious by the blast, but instead suffer for several seconds or minutes while they suffocate."

Nanothermite related hazardsEdit

Like conventional thermite, super thermite reacts at very high temperature and is difficult to extinguish. The reaction produces dangerous ultra-violet (UV) light requiring that the reaction not be viewed directly, or that special eye protection (for example, a welder's mask) be worn.

In addition, super thermites are very sensitive to electrostatic discharge (ESD). Surrounding the metal oxide particles with carbon nanofibers may make nanothermites safer to handle

Conventional exsplosive (TNT, etc) blastsEdit

NTS - BEEF - WATUSI

An detonation of 16 TNT equivalent tons of explosives.

Tovex (also known as Trenchrite, Seismogel, and Seismopac) is a water-gel explosive composed of ammonium nitrate and methylammonium nitrate that has several advantages over traditional dynamite, including lower toxicity and safer manufacture, transport, and storage. It has thus almost entirely replaced dynamite. There are numerous versions ranging from shearing charges to aluminized common blasting agents. Tovex is used by 80% of international oil companies for seismic exploration. Torvex is 0.80% as effective as TNT.

C-4 or Composition C-4 is a common variety of the plastic explosive family known as Composition C. The British version of the explosive is known as PE-4 (Plastic Explosive). C-4 is composed of explosives, plastic binder, plasticizer to make it malleable, and usually a marker or odorizing taggant chemical.

C-4 has a texture similar to modeling clay and can be molded into any desired shape. C-4 is stable and an explosion can only be initiated by the combination of extreme heat and shock wave from a detonator. C-4 is 1.34 times as effective as TNT.

Semtex is a general-purpose plastic explosive containing RDX and PETN. It is used in commercial blasting, demolition, and in certain military applications. Semtex became notoriously popular with terrorists because it was, until recently, extremely difficult to detect, as in the case of Pan Am Flight 103. Semtex is 1.35 times as effective as TNT.

For its original military use it was manufactured under the name B 1. It has been manufactured in Czechoslovakia under its current name since 1964, labeled as SEMTEX 1A, since 1967 as SEMTEX H and since 1987 as SEMTEX 10.

The composition of the two most common variants differ according to their use. The 1A (or 10) variant is used for blasting, and is based mostly on crystalline PETN. The version 1AP and 2P are formed as hexagonal booster charges; a special assembly of PETN and wax inside the charge assures high reliability for detonating cord or detonator. The H (or SE) variant is intended for explosion hardening.

Cyclotol is an explosive consisting of castable mixtures of RDX and TNT. It is related to the more common Composition B, which is roughly 60% RDX and 40% TNT; various compositions of Cyclotol contain from 65% to 80% RDX.

Typical ranges are from 60/40 to 80/20 RDX/TNT, with the most common being 70/30, while the military mostly uses 77/23 optimized in warheads.

Cyclotol is not commonly used, but was reportedly the main explosive used in at least some models of US Nuclear weapon. Sublette lists Cyclotol as the explosive in the US B28 nuclear bomb and possibly related weapons that used the common Python primary - W34, W28, W40, and W49.

It was also used in the B53 nuclear bomb and associated W53 warhead. In a modern military industry last 20 years Cyclotol can be used as filler and main charge most of cluster submunition, especially with a piezoelectric crystal igniter.

A polymer-bonded explosive, also called PBX or plastic-bonded explosive, is an explosive material in which explosive powder is bound together in a matrix using small quantities (typically 5–10% by weight) of a synthetic polymer. PBXs are normally used for explosive materials that are not easily melted into a casting, or are otherwise difficult to form. PBX was first developed in 1952 in Los Alamos National Laboratory, as RDX embedded in polystyrene with dioctyl phthalate plasticizer. HMX compositions with teflon-based binders were developed in 1960s and 1970s for gun shells and for Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) seismic experiments, although the latter experiments are usually cited as using hexanitrostilbene (HNS).

Cyclotol, Tovex, PBX, C-4 and Semtex now came in to use. It was at this time that Kt and Mt came in to usage.

C-4 is 1.34 times as effective as TNT, Semtex is 1.35 times as effective as TNT and Torvex is 0.80% as effective as TNT.

An average IRA special issue 'spectacular' bomb of the mid to late 1980s used to destroy entire RUC\Army installations in 1 blast was on average had a blast of ~2 tonnes. It was made of high explosive which was most often made of ammonia based fertilizer and\or Semtex. 

The ton equivalent (now 'blast ton', 'explosive ton', 'TNT ton', 'ton of TNT', 'ton blast', 'ton explosion' just 'ton') is also used as a way of estimating the blast form IEDs, terrorist devices and accidental industrial explosions. 

IMX-101 is now becoming more common place in the USA and in time the rest of NATOs nations.

Battery explosionsEdit

I SHOULD'VE NEVER DONE THAT !! - CRUSH BATTERY WITH HYDRAULIC PRESS - THE SMASHER SHOW-0

I SHOULD'VE NEVER DONE THAT !! - CRUSH BATTERY WITH HYDRAULIC PRESS - THE SMASHER SHOW-0

Buy the slow motion camera that I used in the video - Chronos 1.4: https://goo.gl/KLPIwD In todays episode of the smasher show I will show you when you smash different types of batteries. Starting from the normal AA bateries and going up to some very powerfull LiPo batteries. Hope you will enjoy it! Music: TheFatRat ("Windfall”) Licenced by Tasty: https://youtu.be/Bamvg4Icmi0

Over heating, already hot, poorly sourced, polarity reversed, over charged and incorrectly recharge batteries will split, rupture or even explode due to the high pressures caused with in.

An explosive situationEdit

Explosive ideasEdit

Explosive newsEdit

Explosive eraEdit

Sonic boomsEdit

'Explosive' toysEdit

The think that makes the 'crack' or 'snap' noise in Christmas crackersEdit

Explosive personalityEdit

Exploding gun\cannon\artillery barrelsEdit

Explosive wight gainEdit

A sudden and huge gain in body wight in a very short time.

Explosive fartsEdit

The very large, smelly and loud ones.

FireworksEdit

Exploding head syndrome (EHS)Edit

Exploding head syndrome (EHS) is a benign condition in which a person hears loud imagined noises (such as a bomb exploding, a gunshot, or a cymbal crash) or experiences an explosive feeling when falling asleep or waking up. These noises have a sudden onset, are typically brief in duration, and are often jarring for the sufferer.

An explosive noiseEdit

Capacitor explosionsEdit

Al-Elko-bad-caps-Wiki-07-02-17

Several failed aluminum electrolytic capacitors with open vents in the top of the can, and visible dried electrolyte residue (reddish-brown color).

Over heating, already hot, poorly sourced, polarity reversed, over charged and incorrectly recharge capacitors will split, rupture or even explode due to the high pressures caused with in.

The capacitor plague was a problem related to a higher-than-expected failure rate of non-solid aluminum electrolytic capacitors, between 1999 and 2007, especially those from some Taiwanese manufacturers, due to faulty electrolyte composition that caused corrosion accompanied by gas generation, often rupturing the case of the capacitor from the build-up of pressure.

High failure rates occurred in many well-known brands of electronics, and was particularly evident in motherboards, video cards, and power supplies of personal computers, leading to premature failure of these devices.

Hydraulic explosionsEdit

Hydraulic cylinder explosion

Hydraulic cylinder explosion

How to split a hydraulic cylinder.

When the fluid gets to high, or the pipe is too weak, it may split, leak, burst or rupture.

Pneumatic explosionsEdit

When the air\gas pressure gets to high, or the pipe is too weak, it may split, leak, burst or rupture.

Frozen pipes burstingEdit

When water friezes in a pipe, it expands on becoming ice, and splits old and weak pipes.

Tier 'blow-out'\'blowout'Edit

Tireimpactdamage

Automobile tire damaged after a impact.

Sudden Tire Blow-Out Safety-0

Sudden Tire Blow-Out Safety-0

The AAA's expert Bill Van Tassel describes the steps to take should a driver encounter a tire blow-out while driving. To View How-To Videos on Almost Any Subject Visit: http://www.monkeysee.com/.

When a tier is to old, worn out, heavily damaged, deeply pierced, deeply cut or over-pressured and may split, causing a 'blow-out'. A blowout is a rapid loss of inflation pressure of a pneumatic tire leading to an explosion. The primary cause for this is encountering an object that cuts or tears the structural components of the tire to the point where the structure is incapable of containing the pressurized air, with the escaping pressurized air adding to further tear through the tire structure.

It is also fairly common for tread separations to be termed “blowouts” - even those where the inflation pressure is not compromised. Because of this confusion, the term is rarely used by experts in tire failures, where the term "impact damage" is more frequently used.

Tire blowouts have been a concern since the dawn of the motoring age. First generation automotive tires suffered from frequent problems until technology developed.

Oil-well 'blow-out'\'blowout'Edit

Oil Rig Blowout

Oil Rig Blowout

A oil rig bowout.

A blowout is the uncontrolled release of crude oil and/or natural gas from an oil well or gas well after pressure control systems have failed. Modern wells have blowout preventers intended to prevent such an occurrence.

Prior to the advent of pressure control equipment in the 1920s, the uncontrolled release of oil and gas from a well while drilling was common and was known as an oil gusher, gusher or wild well. An accidental spark during a blowout can lead to a catastrophic oil or gas fire.

A 'weather bomb'Edit

Explosive cyclogenesis (also referred to as a weather bomb, meteorological bomb, explosive development, or bombogenesis) refers in a strict sense to a rapidly deepening extratropical cyclonic low-pressure area. To enter this category, the central pressure of a depression at 60° latitude is required to decrease by 24 mb (hPa) or more in 24 hours.

This is a predominantly maritime, cold-season (winter) event, but also occurs in continental settings. They are the extra-tropical equivalent of the tropical rapid deepening.

Boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (B.L.E.V.E.)Edit

BLEVE

Flames subsequent to a flammable liquid BLEVE from a tanker. BLEVEs do not necessarily involve fire.

Bleve Demo

Bleve Demo

Bleve Demo: Video File (2007) from Fire SR SUPT HERBERT CEZAR, Fire National Training Institute, Philippine Public Safety College.

A boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE, /ˈblɛviː/ blev-ee) is an explosion caused by the rupture of a vessel containing a pressurized liquid above its boiling point

There are three characteristics of liquids which are relevant to the discussion of a BLEVE:

  1. If a liquid in a sealed container is boiled, the pressure inside the container increases. As the liquid changes to a gas it expands - this expansion in a vented container would cause the gas and liquid to take up more space. In a sealed container the gas and liquid are not able to take up more space and so the pressure rises. Pressurized vessels containing liquids can reach an equilibrium where the liquid stops boiling and the pressure stops rising. This occurs when no more heat is being added to the system (either because it has reached ambient temperature or has had a heat source removed).
  2. The boiling temperature of a liquid is dependent on pressure - high pressures will yield high boiling temperatures, and low pressures will yield low boiling temperatures. A common simple experiment is to place a cup of water in a vacuum chamber, and then reduce the pressure in the chamber until the water boils. By reducing the pressure the water will boil even at room temperature. This works both ways - if the pressure is increased beyond normal atmospheric pressures, the boiling of hot water could be suppressed far beyond normal temperatures. The cooling system of a modern internal combustion engine is a real-world example.
  3. When a liquid boils it turns into a gas. The resulting gas takes up far more space than the liquid did.

Typically, a BLEVE starts with a container of liquid which is held above its normal, atmospheric-pressure boiling temperature. Many substances normally stored as liquids, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), propane, and other similar industrial gases have boiling temperatures, at atmospheric pressure, far below room temperature. In the case of water, a BLEVE could occur if a pressurized chamber of water is heated far beyond the standard 100C. That container, because the boiling water pressurizes it, is capable of holding liquid water at very high temperatures.

If the pressurized vessel, containing liquid at high temperature (which may be room temperature, depending on the substance) ruptures, the pressure which prevents the liquid from boiling is lost. If the rupture is catastrophic, where the vessel is immediately incapable of holding any pressure at all, then there suddenly exists a large mass of liquid which is at very high temperature and very low pressure. This causes a portion of the liquid to "instantaneously" boil, which in turn causes an extremely rapid expansion. Depending on temperatures, pressures and the substance involved, that expansion may be so rapid that it can be classified as an explosion, fully capable of inflicting severe damage on its surroundings.

Boiler explosionEdit

Steam explosionEdit

Soda bottle\bear can explosionsEdit

Violent impacts will cause the CO2 to foam up, increasing air pressure inside it. It will either burst or spry foam every ware if opened or pierced.

Compressed gas cylinder\punctured aerosol explosionsEdit

Violent impacts will damage the container in question and cause the bottled gas or aerosol propellant gas to violently escape with high velocity to equilise with the outside air pressure. It will either burst or spry foam\gas every ware if opened or pierced.

Electrical explosionsEdit

Crushed object\impact explosionsEdit

When something is crushed or heavily impacted it may shatter and fly apart or have pieces splinter off.

Dust\custard powder\flower dust explosionsEdit

Mine\fire damp\methane explosionsEdit

Temper tantrum\emotional\hate-filled explosionsEdit

An exploitation in activityEdit

Chemical explosionsEdit

Gas main explosionsEdit

Heat rupturing compressed gas cylinders and spray cansEdit

Extreme or directly focused heat will cause the bottled gas or aerosol propellant gas to expand rapidly increasing air pressure inside it, as the container weakens slightly, both due to the unwanted heat up. It will either burst or spry foam\gas every ware if opened or pierced.

Volcanic eruptionEdit

ISS013E24184 Mount Cleveland

Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station, May 2006.

A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.

Earth's volcanoes occur because its crust is broken into 17 major, rigid tectonic plates that float on a hotter, softer layer in its mantle. Therefore, on Earth, volcanoes are generally found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging. For example, a mid-oceanic ridge, such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has volcanoes caused by divergent tectonic plates pulling apart; the Pacific Ring of Fire has volcanoes caused by convergent tectonic plates coming together. Volcanoes can also form where there is stretching and thinning of the crust's interior plates, e.g., in the East African Rift and the Wells Gray-Clearwater volcanic field and Rio Grande Rift in North America. This type of volcanism falls under the umbrella of "plate hypothesis" volcanism. Volcanism away from plate boundaries has also been explained as mantle plumes. These so-called "hotspots", for example Hawaii, are postulated to arise from upwelling diapirs with magma from the core–mantle boundary, 3,000 km deep in the Earth. Volcanoes are usually not created where two tectonic plates slide past one another.

Erupting volcanoes can pose many hazards, not only in the immediate vicinity of the eruption. One such hazard is that volcanic ash can be a threat to aircraft, in particular those with jet engines where ash particles can be melted by the high operating temperature; the melted particles then adhere to the turbine blades and alter their shape, disrupting the operation of the turbine. Large eruptions can affect temperature as ash and droplets of sulfuric acid obscure the sun and cool the Earth's lower atmosphere (or troposphere); however, they also absorb heat radiated up from the Earth, thereby warming the upper atmosphere (or stratosphere). Historically, so-called volcanic winters have caused catastrophic famines.

A blown fuseEdit

Tektronixoscilloscope442backfuse-ccbysawikipedia

A miniature time-delay fuse that will interrupt a 0.3 A current at 250 V after 100 s, down to a 15 A current at 250 V in 0.1 s. 32 mm (1 1/4") long. Taken out of an old Tektronix 442 oscilloscope I bought to repair for my electronics ventures and spotted a fuse holder in the back, where this was. It's unlike any fuse I've seen before. Written on this is "250 VOLT" "BUSS MDL 3/10" It's a Bussmann MDL-3/10 Time Delay Glass Fuse. Made by Cooper Bussmann, St. Louis, MO 63178, USA. Fuse Current 3/10 Amps, Fuse Holder Code G, Diameter 1/4 inch, Length 1 1/4 inches, Interrupt Rating 200 amps @ 250 VAC/10 kiloamperes @ 125 VAC --1-1111 (talk) 11:54, 23 November 2009 (UTC). Atribution: DeltaFalcon.

In electronics and electrical engineering, a fuse is a type of low resistance resistor that acts as a sacrificial device to provide overcurrent protection, of either the load or source circuit. Its essential component is a metal wire or strip that melts when too much current flows through it, interrupting the circuit that it connects. Short circuits, overloading, mismatched loads, or device failure are the prime reasons for excessive current. Fuses can be used as alternatives to circuit breakers.

A fuse interrupts an excessive current so that further damage by overheating or fire is prevented. Wiring regulations often define a maximum fuse current rating for particular circuits. Overcurrent protection devices are essential in electrical systems to limit threats to human life and property damage. The time and current operating characteristics of fuses are chosen to provide adequate protection without needless interruption. Slow blow fuses are designed to allow harmless short term currents over their rating while still interrupting a sustained overload. Fuses are manufactured in a wide range of current and voltage ratings to protect wiring systems and electrical equipment. Self-resetting fuses automatically restore the circuit after the overload has cleared, and are useful in environments where a human replacing a blown fuse would be difficult or impossible, for example in aerospace or nuclear applications.

Other things can be 'blown' if they short out or fail (e.g.- a blown gasket, pump, light-bulb or valve, etc) or a temper tantrum ((e.g.- a blown gasket, fuse or valve).

Wellhead blowout\oilwellEdit

A blowout, like what caused at the Ixtoc I oil spill, is the uncontrolled release of crude oil and/or natural gas from an oil well or gas well after pressure control systems have failed to prevent such an occurrence.

Prior to the advent of pressure control equipment in the 1920s, the uncontrolled release of oil and gas from a well while drilling was common and was known as an oil gusher, gusher or wild well. An accidental spark during a blowout can lead to a catastrophic oil or gas fire.

Atomic blastsEdit

The Terrifying True Scale of Nuclear Weapons-0

The Terrifying True Scale of Nuclear Weapons-0

Nuclear weapons have come a long way and come in all types of different sizes. Some are relatively small while others are enormous, so big they boggle the mind at what they can be capable of. This video analyzes the sizes and impacts of various different nuclear devices, the history of nuclear weapons and what countries in the world are in possession of such devices. Music used is by Ross Bugden, check out his channel here! https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCQKGLOK2FqmVgVwYferltKQ?spfreload=5 The exact song is titled; Something wicked, and can be found here https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zuw_O5MU5CE&spfreload=5 Data gathered from Nukemap, check them out! Google Earth Pro used for several imaging shots, used under fair use. Video Credits: Hiroshima bombing and crossroads nuclear weapons test: https://archive.org/details/AFP-67AG_NET356_R-6 used here under fair use. PLEASE SUBSCRIBE: http://bit.ly/2dB7VTO Follow us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/RealLifeLore/ Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/RealLifeLore1 Videos explaining things. Mostly over topics like history, geography, economics and science. We believe that the world is a wonderfully fascinating place, and you can find wonder anywhere you look. That is what our videos attempt to convey.

A nuclear explosion is an explosion that occurs as a result of the rapid release of energy from a high-speed nuclear reaction. The driving reaction may be nuclear fission, nuclear fusion or a multistage cascading combination of the two, though to date all fusion based weapons have used a fission device to initiate fusion, and a pure fusion weapon remains a hypothetical device.

Atmospheric nuclear explosions are associated with mushroom clouds, although mushroom clouds can occur with large chemical explosions, and it is possible to have an air-burst nuclear explosion without these cloud's Nuclear explosions produce radiation and radioactive debris.

Any nuclear explosion (or nuclear war) would have wide-ranging, long-term, catastrophic effects, that could threaten the survival of humankind. Radioactive contamination would cause genetic mutations and cancer across many generations.

The explosions caused by nukes were Inevitably to be measured in the much greater megaton and kiloton range due to their massive blasts.

Technically speaking, Atomic war would be any war in which nuclear weapons are used, ranging from a single, small weapon (like a bunker buster or the ones dropped by the United States on Japan in World War II) or a ad-hock terrorist bomb and all the way up to a full-blown assault between nuclear powers using atomic arms and their opponents (including those without nukes).

Example: Mk-54 (Davy Crockett) – 10 or 20 tons (AKA: 0.010 kilotons or 0.020 kilotons) yield, Davy Crockett artillery warhead.
Example: Mk-54 (SADM) – approximate yield from 10 tons to 1 kiloton, Special Atomic Demolition Munition device.
Example: W48 was an American nuclear artillery shell – 72 tons of TNT (0.072 kiloton).
Example: Pluton missile– 15 or 25 kilotons.
Example: Little Boy bomb– ~16 kilotons.
Example: Operation Buster test blast– 21 kilotons.
Example: 3x W58 warhead in the UGM-27 Polaris– 200 kilotons for each one.
Example: R-12 (SS-4 Sandal)- 2.3 megatons
Example: Ivy Mike test blast – 10.4 megatons.

The blast comparison list!Edit

The blast power per lb comparison list!Edit

  • Bang goes the tonnage!
A list of 25 types of explosive.
Explosive. Nationality. Era. % stronger/weaker than TNT. TNT equivalent.
Gunpowder Chinese Medieval 0.45%
Ammonia fertilizer Various WW1
Torvex American Cold War 0.80%
TNT German American Civil War
Amatol British WW1 110%
Ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (ANFO) American Cold War
Semtex Czechoslovak Cold War
C-4 British Cold War
Torpex British WW2 150%
Cycotol
RDX
PBX
U-235 A-bomb American WW2 +11,428.5714%
Plutonium A-bomb American WW2 +1,500,000%
IMX-101 American\British
Nitroglycerin (NG)
Dynamite
Gelignite
Picric acid British\French
Pure EGDN Belgian
Ammonite British
Fulminated Mercury

The bomb blast comparison list!Edit

  • Bombs away!
A list of 27 bombs.
Bomb. Nationality. Era. Warhead. TNT equivalent.
The Mk 2 "Pine apple" grenade. American WW1. The explosive charge was made of 2 oz of TNT or EC blank fire powder. 2 oz
Soviet F1 "limonka" hand grenade. Soviet WW2 60 g of Trinitrotoluene (TNT). 2.12 oz
POMZ, POMZ-2 and POMZ-2M stake mine- Yugoslavian Cold War 75 g rod of cast TNT 2.65 oz
7.7 cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7 cm FK 96 n.A.) Feldgranate 96: a 6.8 kilogram (15 lb) high-explosive shell . German Imperial WW1 0.19 kg (0.45 lbs) of TNT. 0.45 lb (6.70 oz).
M18 Claymore mine Amerian Cold War 680 g (24 oz) of C-4. 32 oz (2 lb)
MON-50 mine Soviet Cold War 700g of RDX (PVV-5A) 32.92 oz
RP-3 (Rocket Projectile- 3 inch) British WW2 12 lb (5.4 kg) to 60 lb (27 kg) of TNT or TNT/RDX 12 lb to 60 lb (TNT version)
A full RPE “Zarya” 6ZhV corporate polypropylene ammonite powder transportation bag. Ukranian New World Order. 40 kg of ammonite powder. 19.98 lb
M112 demolition charge American. New World Order 25 lb of C-4 33.33 lb
18 inch Mark XVII torpedo British WW2 600 lb (270 kg) Torpex 900 lb
Fritz X missile Nazi German WW2 320 kg (705 lb) of amatol 775.5 lb
1980's IRA 'spectacular' bomb The IRA Cold War ~1.481 tons of Semtex ~2 tons
Timothy McVeigh's Oklahoma City bombing device. American far right New World Order Just over 4,800 pounds (2,200 kg) of ammonium nitrate fertilizer, nitromethane, and diesel fuel combined as ad mixture. Just over 5,000 pounds (2,300 kg) of TNT.
ASM-A-1 Tarzon bomb American WW2 5,200 lb (2,400 kg) of Torpex D1 3.9 tons
Talboy bomb Britsh WW2 5,200 lb (2,400 kg) of Torpex D1 3.9 tons
Grand slam bomb British WW2 4,144 kg (9,136 lb) of Torpex D1 6.5 tons
Mk-54 (Davy Crockett) infantry rocket launcher American Cold War Atomic warhead 10 or 20 tons (AKA: 0.010 kilotons or 0.020 kilotons)
GBU-43/B Massive Ordnance Air Blast (MOAB) American New World Order 8,500 kg (18,700 lb) of H6 11 tons
Mk-54 Special Atomic Demolition Munition device (SADM). American Cold War Atomic warhead 10 tons to 1 kiloton
W48 nuclear artillery shell American Cold War Atomic warhead 72 tons of TNT (0.072 kiloton).
Pluton missile French Cold War Atomic warhead 15 or 25 kilotons.
Little Boy bomb American WW2 U-235 atomic warhead ~15-16 kilotons.
Fat Man American WW2 Plutonium atomic warhead ~21 kilotons.
Operation Buster test blast American Cold War Atomic warhead 21 kilotons
UGM-27 Polaris missile American Cold War 3 atomic warheads 200 kilotons x 3
R-12 (SS-4 Sandal) Soviet Cold War Atomic warhead 2.3 megatons.
Ivy Mike test blast American Cold War Atomic warhead 10.4 megatons.

Injuries caused by bombsEdit

Birmingham Blitz D 4126

Bomb Damage in Birmingham, England, C 1940 Although some debris has been cleared on this site on James Street, Aston Newtown, Birmingham, a large pile of timbers and some brick rubble can be clearly seen. Also visible to the right of the photograph are the twisted remains of several Anderson shelters. In the background, two of the terraced houses that are still standing have had the front wall stripped away by the blast, revealing the interior walls and floors. Date- 1940.

Shock waves and over-pressure effectsEdit

Explosive shock waves can cause situations such as body displacement (i.e., people being thrown through the air), dismemberment, internal bleeding and ruptured eardrums.

Shock waves produced by explosive events have two distinct components, the positive and negative wave. The positive wave shoves outward from the point of detonation, followed by the trailing vacuum space "sucking back" towards the point of origin as the shock bubble collapses. The greatest defense against shock injuries is distance from the source of shock.

As a point of reference, the over-pressure at the Oklahoma City bombing was estimated in the range of 28 MPa.

Primary injuries are caused by blast over-pressure waves, or shock waves. These are especially likely when a person is close to an exploding munition, such as a land mine. The ears are most often affected by the over-pressure, followed by the lungs and the hollow organs of the gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal injuries may present after a delay of hours or even days. Injury from blast over-pressure is a pressure and time dependent function. By increasing the pressure or its duration, the severity of injury will also increase.

Blast effects are usually measured by the amount of over-pressure, the pressure in excess of the normal atmospheric value, in pounds per square inch (psi). There is a 1 to 50 psi (6.9 to 345 kilopascals) over-pressure event when a 1 kiloton of TNT equivalent nuke is air burst.

  • A 10kt standard altitude air blast would cause-
    • 15 psi: 0.33 miles
    • 10 psi: 0.41 miles
    • 7 psi: 0.5 miles
    • 5 psi: 0.61 miles
    • 2 psi: 1.06 miles
    • 1 psi: 1.56 miles
    • 0.25 psi: 4.01 miles
    • 0.1 psi: 8.21 miles
  • 0.25 psi, Most glass surfaces, such as windows, will shatter within this ring, some with enough force to cause injury.
  • 1 psi, 38 mph shock-wave wind, Window glass shatters. Light injuries from dislodged fragments and the debris occur.
  • 2 psi, 70 mph shock-wave wind, Moderate damage to houses with the windows and doors blown out and severe damage to roofs being commonplace. People injured by shrapnel made of flying glass and debris.
  • 3 psi, 102 mph shock- wave wind, Residential structures collapse. Serious injuries are common, fatalities may occur.
  • 5 psi, 163 mph shock-wave wind, Most non-reinforced buildings collapse. Trees are torn up and cars are flung about. Injuries are universal and fatalities are widespread. It ruptures the eardrums in about 1% of people in the zone.
  • 7 psi Severe damage to complete destruction of reinforced concrete structures, such as skyscrapers, will occur within this ring.
  • 10 psi, 294 mph shock-wave wind, Reinforced concrete buildings are severely damaged or demolished. Most people are killed.
  • 20 psi, 502 mph shock-wave wind, Most heavily built reinforced concrete buildings and some bunkers are severely damaged or demolished. Fatalities approach 100%. Barotrauma to people and animals is commonplace.
  • 45 psi, Most bunkers and all heavily biult reinforced buildings will collapse. The over-pressure will cause eardrum rupture in about 99% of all victims in the zone.
  • 50 psi, Only the most heavy and sturdy of 'doomsday bunkers' will survive, but they are badly damaged! The death toll is now 100%, with the handful who may survive the blast are horrifically, if not fatally injured!
  • 55 psi, Nothing remains intact and all life forms died instantly! Every thing is torn apart! 

In general, primary blast injuries are characterized by the absence of external injuries; thus internal injuries are frequently unrecognized and their severity underestimated. According to the latest experimental results, the extent and types of primary blast-induced injuries depend not only on the peak of the over-pressure, but also other parameters such as number of over-pressure peaks, time-lag between over-pressure peaks, characteristics of the shear fronts between over-pressure peaks, frequency resonance, and electromagnetic pulse, among others.

There is general agreement that spalling, implosion, inertia, and pressure differentials are the main mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of primary blast injuries. Thus, the majority of prior research focused on the mechanisms of blast injuries within gas-containing organs and organ systems such as the lungs, while primary blast-induced traumatic brain injury has remained underestimated. Blast lung refers to severe pulmonary contusion, bleeding or edema type swelling with damage to alveoli and blood vessels, or a combination of these. It is the most common cause of death among people who initially survive an explosion.

Displacement of air by the explosion creates a blast wind that can throw victims against solid objects. Injuries resulting from this type of traumatic impact are referred to as tertiary blast injuries. Tertiary injuries may present as some combination of blunt and penetrating trauma, including bone fractures and coup contre-coup injuries in the victim's heads. Children are at a particularly higher risk of tertiary injury due to their relatively smaller body weight.

Heat burnsEdit

In the United States, fire and hot liquids are the most common causes of burns. Of house fires that result in death, smoking causes 25% and heating devices cause 22%. Almost half of injuries are due to efforts to fight a fire. Scalding is caused by hot liquids or gases and most commonly occurs from exposure to hot drinks, high temperature tap water in baths or showers, hot cooking oil, or steam. Scald injuries are most common in children under the age of five and, in the United States and Australia, this population makes up about two-thirds of all burns.

Contact with hot objects is the cause of about 20-30% of burns in children. Generally, scalds are either first or second degree burns, but third-degree burns may also result, especially with prolonged contact. Fireworks are a common cause of burns during holiday seasons in many countries. This is a particular risk for irresponsible adolescent males.

A thermal wave is created by the sudden release of heat caused by an explosion. Military bomb tests have documented temperatures of up to 2,480 °C (4,500 °F). While capable of inflicting severe to catastrophic burns and causing secondary fires, thermal wave effects are considered very limited in range compared to shock and fragmentation. This rule has been challenged, however, by military development of thermobaric weapons, which employ a combination of negative shock wave effects and extreme temperature to incinerate objects within the blast radius. This would be fatal to humans, as bomb tests have proven.

  1. 1st degree (superficial) burns. First-degree burns affect only the epidermis, or outer layer of skin.
  2. 2nd degree (partial thickness) burns. Second-degree burns involve the epidermis and part of the dermis layer of skin. 
  3. 3rd degree (full thickness) burns. The injury extends to all layers of the skin.
  4. 4th Degree: Damage the underlying bones, muscles, and tendons.
  5. 5th Degree: Organs are burnt. A victim’s chance of survival close to zero and life afterwards is worthless.
  6. 6th Degree: A 6th degree burns leave a charred skeleton.
  7. 7th Degree: Cremation ashes.

Fragmentation and thrown debrisEdit

Car bombing, Baghdad

The result of a 2003 car bombing in Iraq. Suicide bombings in Iraq since 2003 have killed thousands of people, mostly Iraqi civilians, and arguably constitute a new phenomenon in the history of warfare. Suicide bombings have been used as a tactic in other armed struggles, but their frequency and lethality in Iraq is unprecedented. Even a relatively small blast can cause a over-pressure shock wave, burns and shrapnel.

Claymore Recon placement

A US Marine places a M18 Claymore mine.

Secondary injuries are caused by Fragmentation and other objects propelled by the explosion. Fragmentation is produced by the acceleration of shattered pieces of bomb casing and adjacent physical objects. The use of fragmentation in bombs dates to the 14th century, and appears in the Ming Dynasty text Huolongjing. The fragmentation bombs were filled with iron pellets and pieces of broken porcelain. Once the bomb explodes, the resulting shrapnel is capable of piercing the skin and blinding enemy soldiers.

While conventionally viewed as small metal shards moving at super-supersonic and hypersonic speeds, fragmentation can occur in epic proportions and travel for extensive distances. When the S.S. Grandcamp exploded in the Texas City Disaster on April 16, 1947, one fragment of that blast was a two-ton anchor which was hurled nearly two miles inland to embed itself in the parking lot of the Pan American refinery. Fragmentation should not be confused with shrapnel, which relies on the momentum of a shell to cause damage.

Officially 'Shrapnel' refers to the pieces of a bomb, shell, or bullet that has exploded out ward, or thrown debris with in (ie: tungsten balls, nails, etc) with the intended design of fragmentation as a weapon of war. During wars, many soldiers are treated for shrapnel wounds. When people are injured or killed by bombs, many of them are hurt by flying shrapnel, that is- sharp, dangerous shards of metal. At all bomb blasts there are other things like shattered glass from a blasted-out windows and wood from broken furniture.

These injuries may affect any part of the body and sometimes result in penetrating trauma with visible bleeding. At times the projectile (a blast thrown/ propelled object may become embedded in the body, obstructing the loss of blood to the outside. However, there may be extensive blood loss within the body cavities. Fragmentation wounds may be lethal and therefore many anti-personnel bombs are designed to generate fragments.

Most casualties are caused by secondary injuries as generally a larger geographic area is affected by this form of injury than the primary blast site as debris can easily be propelled for hundreds to thousands of meters. Some explosives, such as in nail bombs, are deliberately designed to increase the likelihood of secondary injuries. In other instances, the target provides the raw material for the objects thrown into people, e.g., shattered glass from a blasted-out window or the glass facade of a building or wood from broken furniture.

ShrapnellEdit

Shrapnel shells were anti-personnel artillery munitions which carried a large number of individual bullets close to the target and then ejected them to allow them to continue along the shell's trajectory and strike the target individually. They relied almost entirely on the shell's velocity for their lethality. The munition has been obsolete since the end of World War I for anti-personnel use, when it was superseded by high-explosive shells for that role. The functioning and principles behind Shrapnel shells are fundamentally different from high-explosive shell fragmentation, which it is now commonly included with.

Shrapnel is named after Major-General Henry Shrapnel (1761–1842), a British artillery officer, whose experiments, initially conducted in his own time and at his own expense, culminated in the design and development of a new type of artillery shell.

SheltersEdit

Blast sheltersEdit

A blast shelter is a place where people can go to protect themselves from bomb blasts. It differs from a fallout shelter, in that its main purpose is to protect from shock waves and overpressure, instead of from radioactive precipitation, as a fallout shelter does. It is also possible for a shelter to protect from both blasts and fallout.

Blast shelters are a vital form of protection from nuclear attack and are employed in civil defense. There are above-ground, below-ground, dedicated, dual-purpose, and potential blast shelters. Dedicated blast shelters are built specifically for the purpose of blast protection and thus vary in ways from air-aid shelters, radiation shelters, dugouts, foxholes, vaults, Anderson shelters, Morrison shelters, safes, basements, privately improvised bomb shelters, Safe rooms, mine bed\quarry bottom improvised shelters and bunkers. Dual-purpose blast shelters are existing structures with blast-protective properties that have been modified to accommodate people seeking protection from blasts. Potential blast shelters are existing structures or geological features exhibiting blast-protective properties that have potential to be used for protection from blasts.

Blast shelters deflect the blast wave from nearby explosions to prevent ear and internal injuries to people sheltering in the bunker. While frame buildings collapse from as little as 3 psi (20 kPa) of overpressure, blast shelters are regularly constructed to survive several hundred psi. This substantially decreases the likelihood that a bomb can harm the structure.

The basic plan is to provide a structure that is very strong in compression. The actual strength specification must be done individually, based on the nature and probability of the threat. A typical specification for heavy civil defence shelter in Europe during the Cold war was an overhead explosion of a 500 kiloton weapon at the height of 500 meters. Such a weapon would be used to attack soft targets (factories, administrative centres, communications) in the area.

Only the most heavy bedrock-shelters would stand a chance of surviving. However, in the countryside or in a suburb, the likely distance to the explosion is much larger, as it is improbable that anyone would waste an expensive nuclear device on such targets. The most common purpose-built structure is a steel-reinforced concrete vault or arch buried or located in the basement of a house.

Blast resistant doors protect people and property from explosions and shrapnel. One type is four inches of concrete that resists structural fires, cutting torches, fires, withstand a 50 PSI (3 bar) blast load in a seated condition, 14.5 PSI (1 bar) rebound load in a unseated condition and multiple hits with a 7.62 NATO round with no penetration.

Air-raid sheltersEdit

Privately improvised bomb sheltersEdit

Mine bed\quarry bottom improvised shelterEdit

Fall out shelters and atomic\nuclear bunkersEdit

Radio Antenna at Kelvedon Hatch

Kelvedon Hatch emergency broadcast tower, which would have transmitted official announcements after a nuclear attack on the UK. English: Radio Antenna at Kelvedon Hatch (M. Kenyon), ~31 May 2007.

A bunker is a defensive military fortification designed to protect people or valued materials from falling bombs or other attacks. Bunkers are mostly underground, compared to blockhouses which are mostly above ground. They were used extensively in World War I, World War II, and the Cold War for weapons facilities, command and control centers, and storage facilities (for example, in the event of nuclear war). Bunkers can also be used as protection from tornadoes.

Trench bunkers are small concrete structures, partly dug into the ground. Many artillery installations, especially for coastal artillery, have historically been protected by extensive bunker systems. Typical industrial bunkers include mining sites, food storage areas, dumps for materials, data storage, and sometimes living quarters. When a house is purpose-built with a bunker, the normal location is a reinforced below-ground bathroom with fibre-reinforced plastic shells. Bunkers deflect the blast wave from nearby explosions to prevent ear and internal injuries to people sheltering in the bunker. Nuclear bunkers must also cope with the underpressure that lasts for several seconds after the shock wave passes, and block radiation.

A bunker's door must be at least as strong as the walls. In bunkers inhabited for prolonged periods, large amounts of ventilation or air conditioning must be provided. Bunkers can be destroyed with powerful explosives and bunker-busting warheads.

Government would have limped on from places like Kelvedon Hatch Secret Nuclear Bunker and RAF Hack Green. Valuable members of the public, the armed forces and some critical industries would also be protected to a degree, but most would have perished!

No doubt some places would survive and in time form small principality and city states like this S.E. Polish one, The Republic of Mount Tarnica, which I made on another wiki.

A nuclear bunker buster, also known as an earth-penetrating weapon (EPW), is the nuclear equivalent of the conventional bunker buster. The non-nuclear component of the weapon is designed to penetrate soil, rock, or concrete to deliver a nuclear warhead to an underground target. These weapons would be used to destroy hardened, underground military bunkers or other below-ground facilities. An underground explosion releases a larger fraction of its energy into the ground, compared to a surface burst or air burst explosion at or above the surface, and so can destroy an underground target using a lower explosive yield. This in turn could lead to a reduced amount of radioactive fallout. However, it is unlikely that the explosion would be completely contained underground. As a result, significant amounts of rock and soil would be rendered radioactive and lofted as dust or vapor into the atmosphere, generating significant fallout.

VideosEdit

Top 10 Demolitions Gone Wrong-1

Top 10 Demolitions Gone Wrong-1

Top 10 Demolitions Gone Wrong.

Absolutely Massive Explosion in Ukraine-0

Absolutely Massive Explosion in Ukraine-0

► Subscribe to GlobalLeaks: http://goo.gl/bY5w6.

Multiexplosionen in Balakleja. 150.000 Tonnen Munition, Raketen brennen immer noch

Multiexplosionen in Balakleja. 150.000 Tonnen Munition, Raketen brennen immer noch.

Titelmusik von Fallout4 und Gov't Mule with John Scofiled (aka Sco-Mule): 2015-02-24, Ogden Theater, Denver https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NGTrQCtzPdY.

HUGE EXPLOSION IN CHINA ALL ANGLES COMPILATION HD Tianjin

HUGE EXPLOSION IN CHINA ALL ANGLES COMPILATION HD Tianjin

A huge explosion in Tianjin, China, just recently. this video has all the angles currently uploaded. 12/08/2015.

Huge explosion rips through ammo store in Syria - Truthloader

Huge explosion rips through ammo store in Syria - Truthloader

There has been a gigantic explosion at an ammunition store in Homs, Syria, after opposition fighters fired rockets into the regime-held area of the city.

RAW FOOTAGE Canadian Fireworks Factory Fire and Explosion-0

RAW FOOTAGE Canadian Fireworks Factory Fire and Explosion-0

A June 2013 Canadian Fireworks Factory Fire.

Under ice fireworks REMASTERED

Under ice fireworks REMASTERED. Small Medium Large

Thanks for more than 1 000 000 views!!! To celebrate this we have uploaded the remastered edition of the "Under ice fireworks" video. And this time without music. Original video : https://youtu.be/OiLqZ8cKytM.

Fuel Depot Explodes In Tianjin China

Fuel Depot Explodes In Tianjin China

Subscribe to GlobalLeaks: http://goo.gl/bY5w6. A fuel depot in Tianjin China exploded last night around midnight. According to China State TV, the explosion was caused by a shipment of explosives. At least 50 people have been injured so far. There are no reports of causalities at this point. Authorities state to have the situation under control.(Video strictly for news/educational purposes). ___ What is GlobalLeaks? Founded before 2012, the GlobalLeaks News Channel has grown into a popular current events and informational platform on YouTube and across the internet. We strive to show people the events left out of the mainstream media. The events, that in many cases are shaping our world. If you'd like to keep up to date be sure to join us and subscribe.___--- Follow us on twitter: https://twitter.com/globalleak --- Follow us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/pages/GlobalLeaks-News/718777541561370 If you have any questions or would like to send us footage, contact us directly at globalleaksemail@gmail.com or visit our website http://globalleaks.com.

The Real "Quarter Stick" of Dynamite

The Real "Quarter Stick" of Dynamite

This is a m-1000 firecracker also called a Quarter Stick firecracker. This large firecracker was detonated on a rock (which broke) and the ground shook. These are very powferll and no JOKE!

Also seeEdit

  1. Nukes
  2. RPO-A
  3. Sniffex
  4. ADE-651
  5. Science
  6. Torpedoes
  7. Atomic videos
  8. Hand grenades
  9. ASM-A-1 Tarzon
  10. The rules of war
  11. M18 Claymore mine
  12. Land and sea mines
  13. Explosive blast\yield
  14. Popular types of explosives
  15. Mk 2 ''"Pine apple"'' grenade
  16. Soviet F1 ''"limonka"'' hand grenade
  17. Ballistic missiles, missiles and military rockets
  18. A nuclear\atomic holocaust or nuclear apocalypse
  19. Nuclear fallout
  20. Atomic accidents and disasters
  21. Atomic\nuclear power stations
  22. Mushroom cloud
  23. Atomic arsenals
  24. Bomb blast effects
  25. Atomic\nuclear war
  26. Atomic accidents and disasters
  27. The Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND)
  28. Atomic War
  29. Atomic warfare information notes.
  30. A nuclear\atomic holocaust or nuclear apocalypse
  31. Nukes
  32. Explosive blast\yield
  33. Atomic arsenals
  34. Bomb blast effects
  35. Atomic\nuclear war
  36. Atomic accidents and disasters
  37. Atomic\nuclear power stations
  38. Geiger-Muller counter
  39. "Poland is 'toast'!"
  40. Nuclear fallout
  41. Atomic videos
  42. Nuclear fallout
  43. Atomic accidents and disasters
  44. Atomic\nuclear power stations
  45. Mushroom cloud
  46. Atomic arsenals
  47. Bomb blast effects
  48. Atomic\nuclear war
  49. Atomic accidents and disasters
  50. The Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND)
  51. Atomic War
  52. Atomic warfare information notes.
  53. A nuclear\atomic holocaust or nuclear apocalypse
  54. Nukes
  55. Explosive blast\yield
  56. Atomic arsenals
  57. Bomb blast effects
  58. Atomic\nuclear war
  59. Atomic accidents and disasters
  60. Atomic\nuclear power stations
  61. Geiger-Muller counter
  62. "Poland is 'toast'!"
  63. Nuclear fallout
  64. Atomic videos
  65. A surprise nuclear attack

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