1945-1991: Cold War world Wiki
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The "three worlds" of the Cold War era, as of the period between April 1975 and August 1975. Neutral and non-aligned countries shown in green.

The flag of the Peoples' Republic of Congo (Brazzaville).

The Czechoslovakian and Now Czech Republic flag.

The term[]

The term "cold" used in "Cold War" was chosen because there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two sides, although there were major regional wars, known as proxy wars, supported by the two sides. The Cold War split the temporary wartime alliance against Nazi Germany, leaving the Soviet Union and the United States as two superpowers with profound economic and political differences.

Historical background[]

The Cold War was a term used to describe the tensions between the USA and the USSR after World War 2. The Origins of the Cold War were rooted in many issues of an complex and politically threatening origin.

The era[]


Overview[]

The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others). A small neutral bloc arose with the Non-Aligned Movement; it sought good relations with both sides.

Historians do not fully agree on the dates, but a common timeframe is the period between 1947, the year the Truman Doctrine (a U.S. policy pledging to aid nations threatened by Soviet expansionism) was announced, and 1991, the year the Soviet Union collapsed.

The period 1945-1991 and more specifically the interactions, directly or through proxies, between 'the West' and 'the Communist states.'

Background[]

The Cold War was the time of Modern History spanning from the Yalta Conference on Febuary 4, 1945, to December 31, 1991 at the formal end the Soviet Union. The Cold war was not a formal war, but a series of Proxy Wars and buildup of nuclear and and non-nuclear weapons, predominantly between the Warsaw Pact and other Communist countries and the NATO and American forces. During this period in history, the ideologys of Communism and Democracy swept throughout the world. The USA and USSR were both Super-powers at this time.

The East and West completed mostly over sport, science, the arts, space and atomic arms.

The USSR was a Marxist–Leninist state ruled by its Communist Party and secret police, who in turn were ruled by a dictator (Stalin) or a small committee ("Politburo"). The Party controlled the press, the military, the economy and all organizations. It also controlled the other states in the Eastern bloc, and funded Communist parties around the world, sometimes in competition with Communist China, particularly following the Sino-Soviet split of the 1960s. In opposition stood the West, dominantly democratic and capitalist with a free press and independent organizations. A small neutral bloc arose with the Non-Aligned Movement; it sought good relations with both sides. The two superpowers never engaged directly in full-scale armed combat, but they were heavily armed in preparation for a possible all-out nuclear world war. Each side had a nuclear deterrent that discouraged an attack by the other side, on the basis that such an attack would lead to total destruction of the attacker: the doctrine of mutually assured destruction (MAD). Aside from the development of the two sides' nuclear arsenals, and deployment of conventional military forces, the struggle for dominance was expressed via proxy wars around the globe, psychological warfare, massive propaganda campaigns and espionage, rivalry at sports events, and technological competitions such as the Space Race.

The first phase of the Cold War began in the first two years after the end of the Second World War in 1945. The USSR consolidated its control over the states of the Eastern Bloc, while the United States began a strategy of global containment to challenge Soviet power, extending military and financial aid to the countries of Western Europe (for example, supporting the anti-communist side in the Greek Civil War) and creating the NATO alliance. The Berlin Blockade (1948–49) was the first major crisis of the Cold War. With the victory of the communist side in the Chinese Civil War and the outbreak of the Korean War (1950–53), the conflict expanded. The USSR and USA competed for influence in Latin America, and the decolonizing states of Africa and Asia. Meanwhile, the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 was stopped by the Soviets. The expansion and escalation sparked more crises, such as the Suez Crisis (1956), the Berlin Crisis of 1961, and the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. Following the Cuban Missile Crisis, a new phase began that saw the Sino-Soviet split complicate relations within the communist sphere, while US allies, particularly France, demonstrated greater independence of action. The USSR crushed the 1968 Prague Spring liberalization program in Czechoslovakia, and the Vietnam War (1955–75) ended with a defeat of the US-backed Republic of South Vietnam, prompting further adjustments.

Post World War 2[]

The Allies disagreed about how the European map should look, and how borders would be drawn, following the war. Each side held dissimilar ideas regarding the establishment and maintenance of post-war security.The Western Allies were divided in their vision of the new post-war world.

At the Potsdam Conference, which started in late July after Germany's surrender, serious differences emerged over the future development of Germany and the rest of Central and Eastern Europe.One week after the end of the Potsdam Conference, the US bombed Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

Start of The Warsaw Pact[]

During the opening stages of World War II, the Soviet Union laid the foundation for the Eastern Bloc by invading and then annexing several countries as Soviet Socialist Republics, by agreement with Nazi Germany in the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact.

As part of consolidating Stalin's control over the Eastern Bloc, the People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (NKVD), led by Lavrentiy Beriya, supervised the establishment of Soviet-style secret police systems in the Bloc that were supposed to crush anti-communist resistance

Beginning[]

In September 1947, the Soviets created Cominform, the purpose of which was to enforce orthodoxy within the international communist movement and tighten political control over Soviet satellites through coordination of communist parties in the Eastern Bloc. The US government's response to this announcement was the adoption of containment, the goal of which was to stop the spread of communism.

In June 1947, in accordance with the Truman Doctrine, the United States enacted the Marshall Plan, a pledge of economic assistance for all European countries willing to participate, including the Soviet Union. In early 1948, following reports of strengthening "reactionary elements", Soviet operatives executed a coup d'état in Czechoslovakia, the only Eastern Bloc state that the Soviets had permitted to retain democratic structures.

Britain, France, the United States, Canada and other eight western European countries signed the North Atlantic Treaty of April 1949, establishing the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).

In 1949, Mao Zedong's People's Liberation Army defeated Chiang Kai-shek's United States-backed Kuomintang (KMT) Nationalist Government in China, and the Soviet Union promptly created an alliance with the newly formed People's Republic of China.

The Cold War[]

In 1953, changes in political leadership on both sides shifted the dynamic of the Cold War.After the death of Joseph Stalin, Nikita Khrushchev became the Soviet leader following the deposition and execution of Lavrentiy Beria and the pushing aside of rivals Georgy Malenkov and Vyacheslav Molotov.

During November 1958, Khrushchev made an unsuccessful attempt to turn all of Berlin into an independent, demilitarized "free city", giving the United States, Great Britain, and France a six-month ultimatum to withdraw their troops from the sectors they still occupied in West Berlin, or he would transfer control of Western access rights to the East Germans. Khrushchev earlier explained to Mao Zedong that "Berlin is the testicles of the West. Every time I want to make the West scream, I squeeze on Berlin."

The period after 1956 was marked by serious setbacks for the Soviet Union, most notably the breakdown of the Sino-Soviet alliance, beginning the Sino-Soviet split.

The Cuban Missile Crisis occurred in the early 1960s and the Vietnam War scarred the decade.

Detente and Glasnost[]

By the 1970s, both sides had become interested in accommodations to create a more stable and predictable international system, inaugurating a period of détente that saw Strategic Arms Limitation Talks and the US opening relations with the People's Republic of China as a strategic counterweight to the Soviet Union. Détente collapsed at the end of the decade with the Soviet war in Afghanistan beginning in 1979. The early 1980s were another period of elevated tension, with the Soviet downing of Korean Air Lines Flight 007 (1983), and the "Able Archer" NATO military exercises (1983). The United States increased diplomatic, military, and economic pressures on the Soviet Union, at a time when the communist state was already suffering from economic stagnation. In the mid-1980s, the new Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev introduced the liberalizing reforms of perestroika ("reorganization", 1987) and glasnost ("openness", c. 1985) and ended Soviet involvement in Afghanistan. Pressures for national independence grew stronger in Eastern Europe, especially Poland. Mikhail Gorbachev meanwhile refused to use Soviet troops to bolster the faltering Warsaw Pact regimes as had occurred in the past. The result in 1989 was a wave of revolutions that peacefully (with the exception of the Romanian Revolution) overthrew all of the communist regimes of Central and Eastern Europe. The Communist Party of the Soviet Union itself lost control and was banned following an abortive coup attempt in August 1991. This in turn led to the formal dissolution of the USSR in December 1991 and the collapse of communist regimes in other countries such as Mongolia, Cambodia and South Yemen. The United States remained as the world's only superpower.

Aftermath[]

The Cold War and its events have left a significant legacy. It is often referred to in popular culture, especially in media featuring themes of espionage (e.g. the internationally successful James Bond movie franchise) and the threat of nuclear warfare.

Maps[]

Videos[]

Brazilian_Air_Force_2015_A-1_AMX_Fighter-Bomber_in_action_-_Caça-Bombardeiro_A-1_AMX_em_Ação-0

Brazilian Air Force 2015 A-1 AMX Fighter-Bomber in action - Caça-Bombardeiro A-1 AMX em Ação-0

Brazilian Air Force 2015: A-1 AMX Fighter-Bomber in action - Caça-Bombardeiro A-1 AMX em Ação.

MiG_29K_LANDING_on_Admiral_Gorshkov_Aircraft_Carrier_RARE_VIDEO

MiG 29K LANDING on Admiral Gorshkov Aircraft Carrier RARE VIDEO

MiG 29K LANDING on Admiral Gorshkov Aircraft Carrier.

Reforger_II_-_NATO_Exercise_(1970)

Reforger II - NATO Exercise (1970)

Reforger II - NATO Exercise (1970).

  • Awsome Stuff!
  • Fancy seeing many more Videos?!

Image gallery[]

A AMX-13-A light tank.

A BTR-80A APC.

A Tu-95MS Bear bomber.

3 Leopard 2A5 tanks.


Also see[]

  1. UN
  2. CND
  3. Sport
  4. Culture
  5. Missiles
  6. Berlin airlift
  7. Submarines
  8. Vietnam War
  9. Ordine Nuovo
  10. Marshall Plan
  11. Space Satellites
  12. Truman doctrine
  13. Cold War Timeline
  14. Communist parties
  15. 1950–1953 Korean War
  16. Korat Royal Thai Air Force Base
  17. Seven days to the River Rhine (1979)
  18. Weather Underground Organization (WUO)
  19. Communist countries during the Cold War
  20. Cold War secret police organisations
  21. Cold War radio jamming
  22. Cold War radio propaganda
  23. Revolutionary Communist Party, USA
  24. Revolutionary Internationalist Movement
  25. Red Brigades (in Italy)
  26. Black Liberation Army (BLA)
  27. Atomic arsenals
  28. A political diorama
  29. Heidi Krieger/Andreas Krieger
  30. Weather modification
  31. Cuban Missile Crisis
  32. Communist old guard
  33. Portuguese Colonial War
  34. List of Korean Republics
  35. Popular UK Cold War era geopolitical myths and false beliefs
  36. Council for Mutual Economic Assistance
  37. Communist parties
  38. Major Cold War wars that killed over 250,000 people
  39. Daewoo Group and Daewoo Corporation
  40. The Korean Peninsular!
  41. Why South Vietnamese women wore cardigans in Israel
  42. Secret service radio numbers stations
  43. Radio buzzers and akin stations
  44. Secret service radio stations
  45. Letter beacon
  46. The "La Técnica" torture center
  47. The rules of war
  48. The 1950 United Kingdom general election
  49. Warsaw Pact
  50. Ivalo Airfield
  51. Helsinki Vantaa Highway Strip
  52. Helsinki Vantaa Airport
  53. Hyvinkää Airfield
  54. Oulu Air Base
  55. Immola Airfield
  56. Directory of all Indochinese wars in the Cold War
  57. Popular UK Cold War era geopolitical myths and false beliefs
  58. Atomic warfare information notes.
  59. Atomic\nuclear war
  60. The atomic artillery peace ‘Atomic Annie’
  61. Atomic accidents and disasters
  62. The 1950 United Kingdom general election
  63. Super-power
  64. Hungarian Revolution of 1956
  65. Europe
  66. Africa
  67. South America
  68. North America
  69. Central America and the Caribbean
  70. The Middle East
  71. South Asia
  72. East Asia
  73. South East Asia
  74. Oceania
  75. The Arctic and the Antarctica
  76. Outer space
  77. Science
  78. Operation Chrome Dome
  79. 1950–1953 Korean War
  80. Vietnam War
  81. Portuguese Colonial War
  82. NATO
  83. Warsaw Pact
  84. Nukes
  85. Military exercises
  86. "Reds under the bed"
  87. House Committee on Un-American Activities
  88. Directory of all Indochinese wars in the Cold War
  89. Today's OTL types of economies, societies and regimes
  90. UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights
  91. Weather modification
  92. Iranian Revolution
  93. Organisations
  94. Radar
  95. Aircraft
  96. Bombers
  97. Navy
  98. Weather modification
  99. Missiles
  100. Tanks and APCs
  101. USSR
  102. Eastern Bloc
  103. The UN
  104. Communist Parties
  105. Nations
  106. Films
  107. Biographies
  108. Energy industry
  109. Sport
  110. National leaders
  111. Hungarian Revolution of 1956
  112. Arab–Israeli conflict
  113. North Yemen-South Yemen Border Conflict of 1972
  114. North Yemen Civil War
  115. Inner German Border
  116. EBU
  117. ECOWAS
  118. EU
  119. CACM
  120. India
  121. Pakistan
  122. Six-Day War
  123. Suez Crisis
  124. Aden Emergency
  125. Yom Kippur War
  126. Time line of Iraq
  127. 1948 Palestine war
  128. Iranian Revolution
  129. 1970s energy crises
  130. Minerals and fuel in central Africa
  131. What women should wear in the Middle East
  132. Mineral mining, smelting and shipping videos
  133. North Yemen-South Yemen Border Conflict of 1972
  134. Winning a hot war
  135. Iranian videos page
  136. Iran-Iraq war
  137. Palestine vs Israel
  138. 1970s energy crises
  139. 1953 Iranian coup d'état
  140. What women should wear in the Middle East
  141. Bourj el-Barajneh and it's refugee camp
  142. Six-Day War
  143. Suez Crisis
  144. Dhofar Rebellion
  145. Omani Civil War
  146. Hungarian Revolution of 1956
  147. The Al-Wadiah War (1969)
  148. October 28, 1972 Cairo Agreement
  149. Israel invasion of Lebanon in 1982
  150. Qibya massacre
  151. Aden Emergency
  152. Yom Kippur War
  153. Time line of Iraq
  154. 1948 Palestine war
  155. Iranian Revolution
  156. 1970s energy crises
  157. Minerals and fuel in central Africa
  158. What women should wear in the Middle East
  159. Mineral mining, smelting and shipping videos
  160. North Yemen-South Yemen Border Conflict of 1972
  161. Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf
  162. Hungarian Revolution of 1956
  163. United Nations General Assembly
  164. Secretary-General of the United Nations
  165. UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights
  166. United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2758
  167. United Nations Security Council Resolution 1
  168. United Nations Security Council Resolution 54
  169. Cold War secret police organisations
  170. Cold War radio jamming
  171. Cold War radio propaganda
  172. Cold War Timeline
  173. Space Satellites
  174. Seven days to the River Rhine (1979)
  175. Berlin airlift
  176. Marshall Plan
  177. Truman doctrine
  178. Korat Royal Thai Air Force Base
  179. 1950–1953 Korean War
  180. Vietnam War
  181. Weather Underground Organization (WUO)
  182. Communist parties
  183. Revolutionary Communist Party, USA
  184. Revolutionary Internationalist Movement
  185. Red Brigades (in Italy)
  186. Black Liberation Army (BLA)
  187. Ordine Nuovo
  188. CND
  189. Submarines
  190. A political diorama
  191. Heidi Krieger/Andreas Krieger
  192. Weather modification
  193. Missiles
  194. Cuban Missile Crisis
  195. Communist old guard
  196. Portuguese Colonial War
  197. Popular UK Cold War era geopolitical myths and false beliefs
  198. Atomic warfare information notes.
  199. Atomic\nuclear war
  200. The atomic artillery peace ‘Atomic Annie’
  201. Atomic accidents and disasters
  202. The 1950 United Kingdom general election
  203. Super-power

Outside sources[]

  1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cold_War
  2. http://cold-war-and-post-cold-war-history.wikia.com/wiki/Cold_War_and_Post_Cold_War_History_Wiki
  3. http://cold-war.wikia.com/wiki/Cold_War_Wiki
  4. http://coldwar.wikia.com/wiki/Cold_War_Wiki
  5. http://hungary-1956.wikia.com/wiki/Hungary_1956_Wikia
  6. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cold_War
  7. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cold_War
  8. http://cold-war-and-post-cold-war-history.wikia.com/wiki/Cold_War_and_Post_Cold_War_History_Wiki
  9. http://cold-war.wikia.com/wiki/Cold_War_Wiki
  10. http://coldwar.wikia.com/wiki/Cold_War_Wiki
  11. http://hungary-1956.wikia.com/wiki/Hungary_1956_Wikia
  12. https://www.wired.com/2017/05/rare-journey-cheyenne-mountain-complex-super-bunker-can-survive-anything/?mbid=nl_62417_p1&CNDID=

Other relevant wikis[]

  • Cold War and Post Cold War History Wiki [1]
  • Cold War [2], [3] and [4]
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