Ecologists and Green PoliticsEdit
The environmental movement (sometimes referred to as the ecology movement), also including conservation and green politics, is a diverse scientific, social, and political movement for addressing environmental issues.
Deep ecology is an ecological and environmental philosophy promoting the inherent worth of living beings regardless of their instrumental utility to human needs, plus a radical restructuring of modern human societies in accordance with such ideas. Deep ecology argues that the natural world is a subtle balance of complex inter-relationships in which the existence of organisms is dependent on the existence of others within ecosystems. Human interference with or destruction of the natural world poses a threat therefore not only to humans but to all organisms constituting the natural order.
Deep ecology's core principle is the belief that the living environment as a whole should be respected and regarded as having certain inalienable legal rights to live and flourish, independent of its utilitarian instrumental benefits for human use. It describes itself as "deep" because it regards itself as looking more deeply into the actual reality of humanity's relationship with the natural world arriving at philosophically more profound conclusions than that of the prevailing view of ecology as a branch of biology. The movement does not subscribe to anthropocentric environmentalism (which is concerned with conservation of the environment only for exploitation by and for human purposes) since deep ecology is grounded in a quite different set of philosophical assumptions. Deep ecology takes a more holistic view of the world human beings live in and seeks to apply to life the understanding that the separate parts of the ecosystem (including humans) function as a whole. This philosophy provides a foundation for the environmental, ecology, and green movements and has fostered a new system of environmental ethics advocating wilderness preservation, human population control, and simple living.
Green politics (also known as ecopolitics) is a political ideology that aims to create an ecologically sustainable society rooted in environmentalism, nonviolence, social justice, and grassroots democracy. It began taking shape in the western world in the 1970s; since then Green parties have developed and established themselves in many countries around the globe, and have achieved some electoral success.
The political term Green was used initially in relation to die Grünen (German for "the Greens"), a Green party formed in the late 1970s. The term political ecology is sometimes used in academic circles, but in the latter has come to represent an interdisciplinary field of study; the academic discipline offers wide-ranging studies integrating ecological social sciences with political economy in topics such as degradation and marginalization, environmental conflict, conservation and control, and environmental identities and social movements.
Supporters of green politics share many ideas with the ecology, conservation, environmentalism, feminism, and peace movements. In addition to democracy and ecological issues, green politics is concerned with civil liberties, social justice, nonviolence, sometimes variants of localism and tends to support social progressivism. The party's platform is largely considered left in the political spectrum.
The Green ideology has connections with various other ecocentric political ideologies, including ecosocialism, ecoanarchism, and ecofeminism, but to what extent these can be seen as forms of Green politics is a matter of debate.
As the left-wing 'Green' (i.e. capital 'G') political philosophy developed, there also came into separate existence unrelated and polar opposite movements on the right that include ecological components such as green conservatism, eco-capitalism and ecofascism.
Green politics (also known as ecopolitics) is a political ideology that aims to create an ecologically sustainable society rooted in environmentalism, non-violence, social justice, and grassroots democracy. Green politics – political ideology that aims for the creation of an ecologically sustainable society rooted in environmentalism, social liberalism, and grassroots democracy.
The core ideas:
- Ecological wisdom
- Grassroots democracy
- Peace movement
- Social justice
- Human rights
- Civil liberties
- Social equality
- Economic egalitarianism
- Equal opportunity
- Equality of outcome
- A Global Greens Charter
- Ecologically sustainable society rooted in environmentalism
- Social liberalism
Green anarchism (or eco-anarchism) is a school of thought within anarchism which puts a particular emphasis on environmental issues. A green anarchist theory is normally one that extends anarchist ideology beyond a critique of human interactions, and includes a critique of the interactions between humans and non-humans as well. This often culminates in an anarchist revolutionary praxis that is not merely dedicated to human liberation, but also to some form of ecological liberation, and that aims to bring about an environmentally sustainable anarchist society.
Important early influences were Henry David Thoreau, Leo Tolstoy and Élisée Reclus. In the late 19th century there emerged anarcho-naturism as the fusion of anarchism and naturist philosophies within individualist anarchist circles in France, Spain, Cuba and Portugal. Important contemporary currents (some of which may be mutually exclusive) include anarcho-primitivism, which offers a critique of technology and argues that anarchism is best suited to pre-"civilised" ways of life, veganarchism, which argues that human liberation and animal liberation are inseparable, and social ecology, which argues that the hierarchical domination of nature by human stems from the hierarchical domination of human by human.
Eco-terrorism is a term used to refer acts of violence committed in support of ecological or environmental causes, against persons or their property.
Eco-terrorism is defined by the Federal Bureau of Investigation as "the use or threatened use of violence of a criminal nature against people or property by an environmentally oriented, sub-national group for environmental-political reasons, or aimed at an audience beyond the target, often of a symbolic nature." The FBI credited eco-terrorists with 200 million dollars in property damage between 2003 and 2008, and a majority of states within the USA have introduced laws aimed at eco-terrorism.
The Animal Liberation Front (ALF) is an international, clandestine leaderless resistance that engages in illegal direct action in pursuit of animal rights. Activists see themselves as a modern-day Underground Railroad, removing animals from laboratories and farms, destroying facilities, arranging safe houses and veterinary care, and operating sanctuaries where the animals subsequently live. Critics have classified them as terrorists.
Active in over 40 countries, ALF cells operate clandestinely, consisting of small groups of friends and sometimes just one person, which makes the movement difficult for the authorities to monitor. Robin Webb of the British Animal Liberation Press Office has said: "That is why the ALF cannot be smashed, it cannot be effectively infiltrated, it cannot be stopped. You, each and every one of you: you are the ALF."
Activists say the movement is non-violent. According to the ALF's code, any act that furthers the cause of animal liberation, where all reasonable precautions are taken not to harm human or non-human life, may be claimed as an ALF action, including acts of vandalism causing economic damage to their victims. American activist Rod Coronado said in 2006: "One thing that I know that separates us from the people we are constantly accused of being—that is, terrorists, violent criminals—is the fact that we have harmed no one."
There has nevertheless been widespread criticism that ALF spokespersons and activists have either failed to condemn acts of violence or have themselves engaged in it, either in the name of the ALF or under another banner. The criticism has been accompanied by dissent within the animal rights movement itself about the use of violence, and increasing attention from the police and intelligence communities. In 2002 the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC), which monitors extremism in the United States, noted the involvement of the ALF in the Stop Huntingdon Animal Cruelty campaign, which SPLC identified as using terrorist tactics—though a later SPLC report also noted that they have not killed anyone. In 2005 the ALF was included in a United States Department of Homeland Security planning document listing a number of domestic terrorist threats on which the U.S. government expected to focus resources.
In the UK, ALF actions are regarded as examples of domestic extremism, and are handled by the National Extremism Tactical Coordination Unit, set up in 2004 to monitor ALF and other illegal animal rights activity.
Ronnie Lee (born 1951) is a British animal rights activist. He is known primarily for having founded the Animal Liberation Front (ALF) in 1976. He also founded the magazine Arkangel in 1989.
Lobby and pressure groupsEdit
The Campaign to Protect Rural England (CPRE) is a registered charity with over 60,000 members and supporters. Formed in 1926 by Sir Patrick Abercrombie to limit urban sprawl and ribbon development, the CPRE (until the 1960s the Council for the Preservation of Rural England and from then until 2003 the Council for the Protection of Rural England) claims to be one of the longest running environmental groups. CPRE campaigns for a "sustainable future" for the English countryside. They state it is "a vital but undervalued environmental, economic and social asset to the nation." They aim to "highlight threats and promote positive solutions." They campaign using their own research to lobby the public and all levels of government.
The League Against Cruel Sports is an animal welfare charity that campaigns against sports such as bullfighting, fox hunting and hare coursing. It also campaigns to ban the manufacture, sale and use of snares, for the regulation of greyhound racing and for an end to commercial game shooting and trophy hunting. Famous supporters include comedian Ricky Gervais, Jo Brand, John Bishop, Sir David Jason and Gemma Atkinson.
The current President is Professor John Cooper QC. League Vice Presidents include: Singer and TV Presenter, Alesha Dixon, Naturalist, Bill Oddie OBE, Actor, Annette Crosbie OBE, The Rt Hon Baroness Smith of Basildon, Kerry McCarthy MP and Actor Peter Egan.
Direct action groupsEdit
The Hunt Saboteurs Association (HSA) is an organization that uses direct action to stop fox hunting. The HSA have been using the same basic tactics since their inception in 1963, the underlying principle being to disrupt a day's hunting.
Greenpeace is a non-governmental environmental organization with offices in over forty countries and with an international coordinating body in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Founded by Canadian environmental activists in 1971, Greenpeace states its goal is to "ensure the ability of the Earth to nurture life in all its diversity" and focuses its campaigning on worldwide issues such as climate change, deforestation, overfishing, commercial whaling, genetic engineering, and anti-nuclear issues. It uses direct action, lobbying, and research to achieve its goals. The global organization does not accept funding from governments, corporations, or political parties, relying on 2.9 million individual supporters and foundation grants. Greenpeace has a general consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council and is a founding member of the INGO Accountability Charter; an international non-governmental organization that intends to foster accountability and transparency of non-governmental organizations.
Greenpeace is known for its direct actions and has been described as the most visible environmental organization in the world. Greenpeace has raised environmental issues to public knowledge, and influenced both the private and the public sector. Greenpeace has also been a source of controversy; its motives and methods (some of the latter being illegal) have received criticism and the organization's direct actions have sparked legal actions against Greenpeace activists, such as fines and suspended sentences for destroying a test plot of GMO wheat and damaging the Nazca Lines, a UN World Heritage site in Peru.
he sinking of the Rainbow Warrior, codenamed Opération Satanique, was an operation by the "action" branch of the French foreign intelligence services, the Direction générale de la sécurité extérieure (DGSE), carried out on 10 July 1985. During the operation, two operatives sank the flagship of the Greenpeace fleet, the Rainbow Warrior in the port of Auckland, New Zealand on its way to a protest against a planned French nuclear test in Moruroa. Fernando Pereira, a photographer, drowned on the sinking ship.
France initially denied responsibility, but two French agents were captured by New Zealand Police and charged with arson, conspiracy to commit arson, willful damage, and murder. As the truth came out, the scandal resulted in the resignation of the French Defense Minister Charles Hernu.
The two agents pleaded guilty to manslaughter and were sentenced to ten years in prison. They spent just over two years confined to the French island of Hao before being freed by the French government.
In the wake of the bombing, a flotilla of private New Zealand yachts sailed to Moruroa Atoll in French Polynesian to protest against a French nuclear test. France used it as a bombing range and atomic weapons detonation site. The French government was obsessed with nukes at this time and hated any criticism of this, especially by Australia, New Zealand, Indonesia, PNG, The Solomon Islands, locals in French Polynesian and Greenpeace.
Operation Satanique was a public relations disaster. France, being an ally of New Zealand, initially denied involvement and joined in condemning what it described as a terrorist act. The French embassy in Wellington denied involvement, stating that "the French Government does not deal with its opponents in such ways".
In 1987, under international pressure, the French government paid $8.16 million to Greenpeace.
At that time, French nuclear tests in the Pacific were halted. However, another series of tests was conducted in 1995.
IMBY (an acronym for the phrase "Not In My Back Yard"), or Nimby (as a word, instead of an acronym), is a pejorative characterization of opposition by residents to a proposal for a new development because it is close to them (or, in some cases, because the development involves controversial or dangerous technology) often with the connotation that such residents believe that the developments are needed in society but should be further away. The residents are often called Nimbies and their state of mind is called Nimbyism.
Examples of projects likely to be opposed include any sort of housing development, skyscrapers, homeless shelters, oil wells, chemical plants, industrial parks, military bases, fracking, wind turbines, desalination plants, landfill sites, incinerators, power plants, quarries, prisons, pubs, adult entertainment clubs, firearms dealers, mobile phone masts, electricity pylons, abortion clinics, children's homes, nursing homes, youth hostels, sports stadiums, betelnut vendors, shopping malls, retail parks, railways, roads, airports, seaports, nuclear waste repositories, storage for weapons of mass destruction, and cannabis dispensaries and recreational cannabis shops.
The NIMBY concept may also be applied to people who advocate some proposal (e.g., budget cuts, tax increases, layoffs, immigration or energy conservation) but oppose implementing it in a way that might affect their lives or require any sacrifice on their part.
Generally, many NIMBY objections are guessed or feared, because objections are more likely to be successful before the construction start. It is often too late to object to the project after its completion, since new additions are unlikely to be reversed.
Some controversial topics may be at least in part true, but exaggerated by NIMBYs and more radical ecolagists, such as with people living and\or working near high voltage electricity cables may face a greater danger of getting cancer than those who do not.
People in an area affected by plans sometimes form an organization which can collect money and organize the objection activities. NIMBYists can hire a lawyer to do formal appeals, and contact media to gain public support for their case.
Some of may things that did have a strong factual basisEdit
Ozone depletion describes two distinct but related phenomena observed since the late 1970s: a steady decline of about 4% in the total amount of ozone in Earth's stratosphere (the ozone layer), and a much larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozone around Earth's polar regions. The latter phenomenon is referred to as the ozone hole. In addition to these well-known stratospheric phenomena, there are also springtime polar tropospheric ozone depletion events.
The details of polar ozone hole formation differ from that of mid-latitude thinning but the most important process in both iscatalytic destruction of ozone by atomic halogens. The main source of these halogen atoms in the stratosphere isphotodissociation of man-made halocarbon refrigerants, solvents, propellants, and foam-blowing agents (CFCs, HCFCs,freons, halons). These compounds are transported into the stratosphere by winds after being emitted at the surface. Both types of ozone depletion were observed to increase as emissions of halocarbons increased.
CFCs and other contributory substances are referred to as ozone-depleting substances (ODS). Since the ozone layer prevents most harmful UVB wavelengths (280–315 nm) of ultraviolet light (UV light) from passing through the Earth's atmosphere, observed and projected decreases in ozone generated worldwide concern, leading to adoption of the Montreal Protocol that bans the production of CFCs, halons, and other ozone-depleting chemicals such as carbon tetrachloride andtrichloroethane. It is suspected that a variety of biological consequences such as increases in sunburn, skin cancer,cataracts, damage to plants, and reduction of plankton populations in the ocean's photic zone may result from the increased UV exposure due to ozone depletion.
The felling of trees is not as severe as it could be due to widespread paper recycling. There are three categories of paper that can be used as feedstocks for making recycled paper: 'mill broke', 'pre-consumer waste', and 'post-consumer waste'. Mill broke is paper trimmings and other paper scrap from the manufacture of paper, and is recycled internally in a paper mill. Pre-consumer waste is material which left the paper mill but was discarded before it was ready for consumer use. Post-consumer waste is material discarded after consumer use, such as old corrugated containers (OCC), old magazines, and newspapers. Paper suitable for recycling is called 'scrap paper', often used to produce 'molded pulp' packaging. The industrial process of removing printing ink from paper-fibres of recycled paper to make 'deinked pulp' is called deinking, an invention of the German jurist Justus Claproth.
The process of waste paper recycling involves mixing used paper with water and chemicals to break it down. It is then chopped up and heated, which breaks it down further into strands of cellulose, a type of organic plant material; this resulting mixture is called pulp, or slurry. It is strained through screens, which remove any glue or plastic that may still be in the mixture then cleaned, de-inked, bleached, and mixed with water. Then it can be made into new recycled paper. In Nigeria, paper recycling has not yet find it root as a result of poor investor and over dependency on imported goods
The share of ink in a wastepaper stock is up to about 2% of the total weight.
Some recycling firms and websitesEdit
In the UKEdit
The UK government's direct.gov.uk web site carries information on were you can recycle batteries in the UK. Both libraries, supermarkets, shops and and pubs have started collecting old batteries in recent years.
The aim of I-recycle is to provide a central point for people offering items that they no longer require or need. The passing on of these items reduces the amount of usable goods going to landfill site s across the UK. It was created on April 11, 2006 as an alternative to the existing Freecycle Network . Several existing users expressed displeasure of the usage of the Yahoo! Groups framework and the amount of email received by subscribers. As a result of these issues and others, the website was created to replace the yahoo groups and to promote the use of advance functionality like RSS and geo-mapping information. I-recycle is currently based in the UK . However the spread of I-recycle to Ireland and possibly other countries is both welcome and foreseeable.
"Any Good to You" often shortened to AGTY (motto- Finding new homes for things too good to throw away.), is an organisation founded in the city of Sheffield that aims to reduce landfill by encouraging people to give away items they no longer need but which are too good to throw away. It has similar goals to Freecycle and Freegle.
AGTY was formed in September 2009 after the lead developers became frustrated with limitations of their local group.This was at a similar time many of the UK The Freecycle Network groups decided to break away from its US roots following disagreements and dismissal of long standing UK moderators.
Environmental Waste Controls plc (EWC) is a privately held Merseyside based UK company, who provide waste management and recycling solutions for variouse types of industry. It was first founded by William A. (Bill) Edwards in 1993 , who initially started the business from his bedroom, the concept was to offer a total transparent and fixed price waste and recycling management package.
During the first 6 months of developing the business, EWC carried out extensive product research and market testing with several pilot projects with local NHS Trusts, following the success of these projects the product supply line, marketing strategy and concept of the business were firmly established. - -
Since 1993 EWC has provided over 500 organisations and many local authority household waste and recycling centres , such as the Hilton hotel , Radisson Hotels , railway stations, National Health Service Trusts and local government boddis, both in the UK and Ireland , with significant cost reduction in their waste budget, through maximising recycling and minimising fixed prices for waste segregation, storage, transport and waste disposal for landfill . - -
Plans to branch out in to battery recycling were mooted in early late 2000's, but were quickly dropped. WMC was bought out in 2004 by another waste management firm. By 2008, the firm employed 400 people and had sales of about $46,900,000.
Other present day (as of 2010) functions and services include-
- Aluminium scrap recycling - -
- Tin , Steel and Aluminium can recycling - -
- Waste Management and Recycling Services - -
- Industrial waste balers - -
- Automatic numberplate recognition (ANPR) Parking Systems - -
- Trash compactors - -
- Hand-fed Balers - -
- Hospital waste management - -
- Industrial shredders - -
- Landfill waste management services - -
Other present day (as of 2014) functions and services include-
- Aluminium scrap recycling
- Waste Management and Recycling Services
- Industrial waste balers
- Automatic number plate recognition (ANPR) Parking Systems
- Trash compactors
- Hand-fed balers
- Hospital waste management
- Industrial shredders
- Landfill waste management services
As of 2014 nearly near bankruptcy lead to a down sized sold off property in Scotland to pay debt and engineering side went in to liquidation and started trading under new name Compaction UK.
letsrecycle.com is a UK based website for reporting news and information related to the waste management and recycling industries under the supervision of the Chartered Institute of Wastes Management . The website produces daily updates and information and is one of the key providers of news in the UK waste industry. It is the UK's only independent dedicated website for businesses, local authorities and community groups involved in recycling and waste management. The site also has a discussion board, "clubrecycle", where waste managers and stakeholders can discuss industry developments. - - The company is involved in a number of other dynamics in the waste industry, including an annual exhibition Letsrecycle Live and provides Awards for Excellence in Recycling and Waste Management. It is widely cited as a place of reference by industry organisations, government and local authorities such as Lichfield District Council, Nottinghamshire County Council and Neath Port Talbot Council under the supervision of the Retrieved Energy Savings Trust. The editorial team consists of Steve Eminton, Caelia Quinault, Chris Sloley and Nick Mann.
In the EU and EEAEdit
The scheme, entitled Citron Recycle, will see French and UK batteries being colected at the the Enthoven facility in Derbyshire and transported to Citron's recycling facility in the port of Le Havre in Northern France , where they will be broken down in a high temperature facilaties for further use in other products. It uses ‘ oxyreducer ' process, which separates out the zinc , cadmium , lead and mercury at 1,200 degrees Celsius . The high temperature also kills of all bacterial contamination and burns up all organic matter waste materials.The UK through a scheme operated by Hampshire based firm Loddon Recycling. Switzerland 's Citron SA is one of the largest battery recycling firms in Europe , and operates the EU's Citron Recycle scheme, with partners in the UK, Ierland, France and Switzerland. The EU's 2006 EU Battery Directive has made battery obligatry in all it's member states by 2016 and helped set up the letsrecycle.com web site to encorge the present recycling scyemes in the EU.
In the United StatesEdit
PowerGenix is a San Diego -based company developing rechargeable batteries, Nickel-zinc (NiZn) and recycling batteries. Nickel-Zinc are generally viewed much safer than Nickel-cadmium . Cadmium is banned in the EU, Toys R Us and Mattel. Their high power-to-size ratio batteries are used in objects as varied as GPS systems, hand-held games consoles and remote-controlled units. PowerGenix has been selected by TARDEC to provide NiZn vehicle batteries for hybrid electric vehicle s. - -
The Panasonic Eco Technology Centre, in Osaka city started recycling fridge s, flat screen TV s, air conditioning units and some computer s in the December of 2009. Matsushita Plasma Display Panel company had also started recycling flat screen TVs in the December of 2009.
First National Battery first began to recyclable batteries as was war mesure in 1942 and have recently set up a new battery recycling plant in Benoni, South Africa. Batteries are now almost 100% recyclable. Scrapbattery recycled car battery for cash. Many battery firms are also active in the recycling trade.
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