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Black Forest gateau.jpg|A Black Forest Gâteau, a German dessert.
 
Black Forest gateau.jpg|A Black Forest Gâteau, a German dessert.

Revision as of 21:33, February 28, 2017

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IMPORTANT:This page has used Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia in either a refactored, modified, abridged, expanded, built on or 'strait from' text content!
Flag of Europe

The EU flag.

-EUSSR- flag.svg

Flag of the "EUSSR", a common trope among hard Eurosceptics , comparing the EU with the USSR.

1914 base map.

The world in 1914.

BlankMap-Europe-v5

Europe today.

File:GNP European nation states.png

History

BlankMap-Europe-v5

Europe today.

Overview

The European Union (EU) is a politico-economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. It covers an area of 4,324,782 km2, with an estimated population of over 508 million. The EU operates through a system of supranational institutions and intergovernmental-negotiated decisions by the member states. The institutions are: the European Parliament, the European Council, the Council of the European Union, the European Commission, the Court of Justice of the European Union, the European Central Bank, and the Court of Auditors. The European Parliament is elected every five years by EU citizens.

he EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states. Within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services, and capital, enact legislation in justice and home affairs, and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture, fisheries, and regional development The monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002. It is currently composed of 19 member states that use the euro as their legal tender.

European Broadcasting Union members

EBU membership dates.

The EU works in co-operation with the European Broadcasting Union and European Space Agency. There are other  agreements as with the  "Deutsches Institut für Normung" over the DIN stands (DIN numbers) for various produce.

International Paneuropean Union

The International Paneuropean Union, also referred to as the Paneuropean Movement and the Pan-Europa Movement, is the oldest European unification movement. It began with the publishing of Count Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi's manifesto Paneuropa (1923), which presented the idea of a unified European State. Coudenhove-Kalergi, a member of the Bohemian Coudenhove-Kalergi family and the son of an Austro-Hungarian diplomat and a Japanese mother, was the organisation's central figure and President until his death in 1972.

It is independent of all political parties, but has a set of principles by which it appraises politicians, parties, and institutions. The International Paneuropean Union has four main basic principles: liberalism, Christianity, social responsibility, and pro-Europeanism. At the same time, it openly welcomes and acknowledges the contributions of Judaism and Islam whose heritage they share.

The modern concept

Defenders of Warsaw (1939)

Polish soldiers with anti-aircraft artillery near the Warsaw Central Station during the first days of September, 1939.

After World War 2, the European nations saught a way to make any future wars impossible and a way keep both the USA and USSR from economically and\or politicaly dominating the region in the long term.

The union maintains permanent diplomatic missions throughout the world and represents itself at the United Nations, the WTO, the G8, and the G-20. The European Parliament announces new President and Foreign Affairs Minister in 2009. Got the Nobel Peace Prize 2012" in 2012 and Croatia joined in 3 June 2013. Because of its global influence, the European Union has been described as a current or as a potential superpower in recent years (as of 2015).

Preliminary plans (1945-1947)

Portugal in 1950-0

Portugal in 1950-0

A travelogue of right after the war shows how the country has survived the war. Lisbon and Porto are shown as well as fishery, cork and other sources of income. Finally a typical traditional dance is performed.

Portugal 1980 and 1981-0

Portugal 1980 and 1981-0

These are old kodachrome images taken in Portugal in the eraly 80's.

There had been talk of a united Anglo-French, Anglo-Irish, Anglo-Nordic, Iberia, Fraco-Belgian, Nordic, Fraco-Italian, Franco-Spanish, Anglo-American, Anglo-Australian and Frnco-West German trade bloc just after World War 2. The idea of a European trade bloc lead to the birth of ECSC, EFTA and the EEC. As a result

European Movement International (1947)

The European Movement International is a lobbying association that coordinates the efforts of associations and national councils with the goal of promoting European integration, and disseminating information about it. The origins of the European Movement date to July 1947, when the cause of a united Europe was being promoted by notables such as Duncan Sandys in the form of the Anglo-French United European Movement.

The origins of the European Movement date to July 1947, when the cause of a united Europe was being promoted by notables such as Duncan Sandys in the form of the Anglo-French United European Movement. The UEM acted as a platform for the co-ordination of the organisations created in the wake of World War II. As a result of their efforts, the congress of The Committee for the Co-ordination of the European Movements took place in Paris on 17 July 1947 incorporating "La Ligue Européenne de Coopération Economique" (LECE), "l'Union Européenne des Fédéralistes" (UEF), "l'Union Parlementaire Européenne" (UPE) and the Anglo-French United European Movements. They met again on 10 November 1947 and changed their name to The Joint International Committee for European Unity. They retained this name until after the 1948 Congress of The Hague.

From 7 to 11 May 1948, 800 delegates from Europe and observers from Canada and the United States gathered in The Hague, the Netherlands for the Congress of Europe. Organised by the International Committee of the Movements for European Unity and presided over by Winston Churchill, the Congress brought together representatives from across a broad political spectrum, providing them with the opportunity to discuss ideas about the development of European Union. Important political figures such as Konrad Adenauer, Winston Churchill, Harold Macmillan, Bertrand Russell, François Mitterrand, Paul-Henri Spaak, Albert Coppé and Altiero Spinelli took an active role in the congress and a call was launched for a political, economic and monetary Union of Europe. This landmark conference was to have a profound influence on the shape of the European Movement, which was created soon afterwards.

A proposed flag to replace the original federalist 'Green E'. The European Movement was formally created on 25 October 1948, when the Joint International Committee for European Unity decided to change its name. Duncan Sandys was elected President and Léon Blum, Winston Churchill, Alcide De Gasperi and Paul-Henri Spaak were elected as Honorary Presidents. The U.S. policy was to promote a United States of Europe, and to this end the American Committee on United Europe committee was used to discreetly funnel CIA funds to such organisations as this.

The first major achievement of the European Movement was the setting up of the Council of Europe in May 1949. The European Movement was also responsible for the creation of the College of Europe in Bruges and the European Center of Culture in Geneva. One of its major functions during the 1950s through to the 1990s was the setting up of think-tanks and a network of discussion groups across Europe, in countries both democratic and Communist.

Since 1948, the European Movement has lobbied for further integration, on numerous subjects. It worked in favour of the direct election of the European Parliament by all European citizens, in favour of the Treaty on the European Union (the Maastricht Treaty) and also for a European Constitution.

Treaty of Paris (1951)

Treaty of Paris (1951)

Coal and Steel Community

Robert Schuman proposed creating the European Coal and Steel Community on 9 May 1950, which became operative after the singing of the 1951 Treaty of Paris. The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was an international organization serving to unify European countries after World War II. It was formally established by the Treaty of Paris (1951), which was signed by Belgium, France, West Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Luxembourg. The ECSC was the first international organisation to be based on the principles of supranationalism, and would ultimately lead the way to the founding of the European Union.

Modified Treaty of Brussels (1954)

Modified Treaty of Brussels (1954)

The Western European Union

The Western European Union (WEU; French: Union de l'Europe occidentale, UEO) was an international organisation and military alliance, tasked with implementing the Modified Treaty of Brussels (1954), an amended version of the original 1948 Treaty of Brussels. The WEU was established by seven European nations allied with the USA (Capitalist Bloc and NATO members) during the Cold War.

The EEC and Treaty of Rome (1957)

History of the European Union (1945-2015)

History of the European Union (1945-2015)

History of the EU.

In 1957, Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and West Germany signed the Treaty of Rome, which created the European Economic Community (EEC) and established a customs union. They also signed another pact creating the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) for co-operation in developing nuclear energy. Both treaties came into force in 1958.

Founding of the EC and British applications for membership

The UK was not a signatory to the Treaty of Rome which created the then European Communities (EC), which was the collective term for the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), the European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC). in 1957. The country subsequently applied to join the organisation in 1963 and again in 1967, but both applications were vetoed by the President of France, Charles de Gaulle, who said that "a number of aspects of Britain's economy, from working practices to agriculture" had "made Britain incompatible with Europe" and that Britain harboured a "deep-seated hostility" to any pan-European project. Once de Gaulle had relinquished the French presidency in 1969, the UK made a third and successful application for membership. The question of sovereignty had been discussed at the time in an official Foreign and Commonwealth Office document (FCO 30/1048) that became open to the public in January 2002 under the rules for availability after thirty years.

It listed among "Areas of policy in which parliamentary freedom to legislate will be affected by entry into the European Communities": Customs duties, Agriculture, Free movement of labour, services and capital, Transport, and Social Security for migrant workers. The document concluded (paragraph 26) that it was advisable to put the considerations of influence and power before those of formal sovereignty. The Treaty of Accession was signed in January 1972 by the prime minister Edward Heath, leader of the Conservative party. Parliament's European Communities Act 1972 was enacted on 17 October and the UK's instrument of ratification was deposited the next day (18 October), letting the United Kingdom's membership of the EEC, or "Common Market", come into effect on 1 January 1973. The opposition Labour Party, led by Harold Wilson, contested the October 1974 general election with a commitment to renegotiate Britain's terms of membership of the EEC and then hold a referendum on whether to remain in the EC on the new terms.

1967 Merger Treaty (1967 Treaty of Brussels)

On 1 July 1967 when the Merger Treaty (Treaty of Brussels) came into operation, combining the institutions of the ECSC and Euratom into that of the EEC.

1972 Paris Summit

The 'snake in the tunnel' was the first attempt at European monetary cooperation in the 1970s, aiming at limiting fluctuations between different European currencies.

The Schengen Agreement (1985)

The Schengen Agreement is a treaty which led to the creation of Europe's borderless Schengen Area. It was signed on 14 June 1985 by five of the ten member states of the then European Economic Community near the town of Schengen, Luxembourg. It proposed the gradual abolition of border checks at the signatories' common borders. Measures proposed included reduced speed vehicle checks which allowed vehicles to cross borders without stopping, allowing residents in border areas freedom to cross borders away from fixed checkpoints and the harmonisation of visa policies. A single EU border force has been periodically mentioned since.

German reunion (1990)

Berlin Wall Documentary - The German Death Strip - History Documentary Films

Berlin Wall Documentary - The German Death Strip - History Documentary Films

Berlin Wall Documentary - The German Death Strip - History Documentary Films.

Germany was occupied and divided in to the FRG and GDR from 1949 to 1990. The Berlin Wall fell in 1989 and Germany united in 1990.

The Maastricht Treaty (1992)

The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty on European Union or TEU) undertaken to integrate Europe was signed on 7 February 1992 by the members of the European Community in Maastricht, Netherlands. On 9–10 December 1991, the same city hosted the European Council which drafted the treaty. Upon its entry into force on 1 November 1993 during the Delors Commission, it created the European Union and led to the creation of the single European currency, the Euro. The Maastricht Treaty has been amended by the treaties of Amsterdam, Nice and Lisbon. It became possible to hold European Union citizenship since 1993 and a single passport has been oft proposed since then.

Treaty of Amsterdam (1997)

The European Union Explained*-0

The European Union Explained*-0

The European Union Explained*. CGPGrey T-Shirts: http://dftba.com/product/10m/CGP-Grey-Logo-Shirt Help support videos like this: http://www.cgpgrey.com/subbable Twitter: https://twitter.com/cgpgrey Tumblr: http://cgpgrey.tumblr.com/ G+: https://plus.google.com/115415241633901418932/posts.

The Amsterdam Treaty, officially the Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts, was signed on 2 October 1997, and entered into force on 1 May 1999; it made substantial changes to the Treaty of Maastricht, which had been signed in 1992.

Under the Treaty of Amsterdam, member states agreed to devolve certain powers from national governments to the European Parliament across diverse areas, including legislating on immigration, adopting civil and criminal laws, and enacting foreign and security policy (CFSP), as well as implementing institutional changes for expansion as new member nations join the EU.

Treaty of Nice (2001)

The Treaty of Lisbon (2009)

Recent crisis, especially Greece abd Brexit

Maps

Attached nations

Monaco is not formally a part of the European Union (EU), but it participates in certain EU policies, including customs and border controls. Through its relationship with France, Monaco uses the euro as its sole currency (prior to this it used the Monégasque franc). Monaco joined the Council of Europe in 2004. It is a member of the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (OIF).

The official language is French, but Monégasque, Italian, and English are widely spoken and understood. The state's sovereignty was officially recognized by the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861, with Monaco becoming a full United Nations voting member in 1993. Despite Monaco's independence and separate foreign policy, its defense is the responsibility of France. However, Monaco does maintain two small military units.

Andorra's tourism services an estimated 10.2 million visitors annually. It is not a member of the European Union, but the euro is the official currency. It has been a member of the United Nations since 1993. In 2013, the people of Andorra had the highest life expectancy in the world at 81 years, according to The Lancet.

The official language is Catalan, although Spanish, Portuguese, and French are also commonly spoken.

Future expatiation

Turkey, Bosnia, Kosovo, Ukraine, Iceland (pending a 'yes' vote in a public referendum) Albania, Georgia, Macedonia and Montenegro said between 2014 and 2016 that they wanted to join the EU.

Resent issues in Bosnia

BOSNIA in ECONOMIC TURMOIL STATE FIRMS COLLAPSE After Turing Private MORE VIOLENT PROTESTS Expected

BOSNIA in ECONOMIC TURMOIL STATE FIRMS COLLAPSE After Turing Private MORE VIOLENT PROTESTS Expected

This is why the EU moved eastward, to save the ecanomic failing Balkan states!

Protesti ispred Vlade TK 5

Protesti ispred Vlade TK 5

2014 riots in Tuzla.

Mostar BiH Riots 07 02 2014

Mostar BiH Riots 07 02 2014

2014 riots in Mostar.

Mostar

Mostar

Never again! Love conquers hate and so the EU will defeat ethno-religious feuds.

The EU established a regional approach to the Western Balkans already in 1997, with political and economic conditionality criteria for the development of bilateral relations. The EU/Bosnia and Herzegovina Consultative Task Force was formed in 1998 and was replaced in 2006, the task force is replaced by the Reform Process Monitoring (RPM).

Unilateral trade preferences ("Autonomous Trade Measures", (ATM)) were introduced by the EU for Bosnia and Herzegovina in the year 2000 and trade increased since 2008.

It was reported in the UK media that the Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina propped up several banks during mid 2009 after a local bank collapsed due to fiscal pressure on it by other European banks it traded with, one of which was German.

The 2014 unrest in Bosnia and Herzegovina was a series of demonstrations and riots that began in the northern town of Tuzla on 4 February 2014, but quickly spread to 20 towns and cities. It was caused by concerns over a sluggish economy, mismanagement, corruption and unemployment, which was by the time at ~30%

The protests mark the largest outbreak of public anger over high unemployment and two decades of political inertia in the Balkan country of 3.8 million people since the end of the 1992–95 war. 20% lived below the poverty line.

The IT sector stated booming in Bosnia by 2016, but it had yet to reach its full potential according to corporate bosses and IT experts. Tourism to rural cycle roots also took off in 2015.

They applied to join the EU in February 2016.

Bosnia's ethnic quarrels and 1990s civil war fallout remain a worry for the EU, along with heavy corruption and the emergent role of organised crime. The Commission officially stated that Bosnia was still plagued by an "unstable political climate" and ethnic divisions (among Serbs, Croats and Bosniacks). In December 2011 Bosnia's Muslim, Croat and Serb leaders agreed on the formation of a central government, ending 14 months of political deadlock over who could do what in it. The European Court of Human Rights has ruled that Bosnia's electoral laws discriminate against Jews and Roma (Gypsies), because only Bosniaks, Croats and Serbs are allowed to run for high office. The triple leadership was formed in the wake of the civil war as a way of preventing any further conflict in the future between Bosniaks, Croats and Serbs. The British hate all Bosnians, especially Serbs, on the false post millennium belief that the civil war was all a organised crime/EU cover for a immigration smuggling from the former Yugoslavia.

Canton 10's political identity controversy

Canton 10 is one of the 10 Cantons of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The local government seat is in Livno, while the assembly is in Tomislavgrad. The "Bosnia's Canton 10's names, titles, symbols and flags controversy" is a major etho-political-sectarian identity issue in the region.

In Croatian the term županija (county) is used, while in Bosnian and Serbian the term is kanton/кантон. The canton is officially referred by the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina as Canton 10/County 10 (Kanton 10 or Županija 10).

The local government however refers to it as the Herzeg-Bosnia County (Hercegbosanska županija) and uses that name in the local constitution.

This name has been deemed unconstitutional by the Federation's Constitutional Court because it contains elements of the name of the country of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which any other canton could contain. Other names used at the national level include North Herzegovina Canton/County (Sjevernohercegovački kanton, Sjevernohercegovačka županija) and Livno Canton (Livanjski kanton), after its capital.

The flag and coat of arms of the canton were the same as the flag and coat of arms of the former Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia. West Herzegovina canton was another canton in Bosnia and Herzegovina which also used this flag and coat of arms. However, these symbols were deemed unconstitutional by the Federation Constitutional Court, because "it only represented one group". Defying the court's ruling, the local government continues using these symbols, and the coat of arms is used at plates at the official institutions. Due to the name and symbols dispute, the local police up to this (2014) day have no official badges.

Bosnian trebel leadership sytems and figures

The Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina is the three-member body which collectively serves as head of state of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

According to the Article V of the Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of three members: one Bosniak and one Croat elected from the Federation and one Serb elected from the Republika Srpska. Together, they serve one four-year term.

The member with the most votes becomes the chairperson unless he or she was the incumbent chairman at the time of the election, but the chairmanship rotates every eight months, to ensure equality.

The EU says it must stop for not giving a post to all factions (Gypsies, mixed bloods, Hungarians, Romanians, Kosovars, and so on). Over the years they have indicated there preference for a signal dictatorial leader instead of the present triumvirate. 

Other issues

The Republic of Kosovo wants to join the EU, but 5 EU states will block this. The fascist nations Greece (hates Albanians and Macedonians) and Spain (hates Basques and Catalans, the prior then went on to founded ETA in response), hopelessly divided Cyprus and the the former Eastern Bloc nations of Romania, Slovakia, do not recognise Kosovo's independence. The United Nations (UN) dose nit reconise it  since it is an artificial made ethnic homeland for Kosovars. It covers the former Serbian province of Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija. FEFA, NATO and the IOC do reconise it. The EU has unofficaly reconised it since 2012.

In 2012, EU unofficially recognised the plans of four aspiring members: Ukraine, Albania, Georgia, Macedonia, Turkey and Montenegro. Macedonia has been prevented from joining the bloc by Greece, who has racist views even about it's name 'Macedonia'. Cyprus never wants to be in any organisation that contains Turks and wants all ethnic Turks expelled from the Turkish held part of te island of Cyprus. Serbia and Bosnia have had there bids for membership formally considered by the EU.

Turkey, Iceland, Switzerland, Serbia, and Ukraine have had recent open political debate on the topic of membership.

The EEA

The European Economic Area (EEA) provides for the free movement of persons, goods, services and capital within the internal market of the European Union (EU) between its 28 member states, as well as three of the four member states of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA): Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway. The Agreement is applied provisionally with respect to Croatia—the remaining and most recent EU member state—pending ratification of its accession by all EEA parties.

The EEA was established on 1 January 1994 upon entry into force of an agreement between the member states and the EU's predecessors, the European Economic Community and the European Coal and Steel Community. EFTA states which join the EEA participate in the EU's internal market without being EU members, adopting almost all the relevant EU legislation other than laws regarding agriculture and fisheries. The EEA's "decision-shaping" processes enable them to influence and contribute to new EEA policy and legislation from an early stage.

One EFTA member, Switzerland, has not joined the EEA, but has a series of bilateral agreements with the EU which allow it also to participate in the internal market.

The EEA members also agreed to cut the member's sometimes massive mobile phone roaming usage fees in the mid 2000s.

EU flags and emblems

Flag of Europe

The EU flag.

Anthem of Europe (US Navy instrumental short version) (1)

Anthem of Europe.

The EEC/EU motto is "United in diversity" and the flag is the gold and blue "Euro-stars"\"Eruo-fag".

The Flag of Europe, or European Flag is the flag of Europe. It consists of a circle of 12 golden (yellow) stars on an azure background. It is an official symbol of two separate organizations — the Council of Europe (CoE) and the European Union (EU) — both of which term it the "Flag of Europe" or the "European Flag". It was first adopted in 1955 by the Council of Europe to represent the European continent as a whole. Due to the subsequent emergence of the EU, the flag is sometimes colloquially known as the "flag of the European Union", but this term is not official.

The flag was designed in 1955, and officially launched later that year by the Council of Europe as a symbol for the whole of Europe. The Council of Europe urged it to be adopted by other European organisations, and in 1985 the European Economic Community (EEC) adopted it as its own flag (having had no flag of its own before) at the initiative of the European Parliament.

The flag is not mentioned in the EU's treaties, its incorporation being dropped along with the European Constitution, but it is formally adopted in law. The Council of Europe has a distinctive "Council of Europe Logo" to uniquely identify the organisation, which employs a lower-case "e" in the centre. The logo is not meant to be a substitute for the flag, which the Council flies in front of and in its headquarters, annexes and field office premises.

Since its adoption by the European Union, it has become broadly associated with the supranational organisation due to its high profile and heavy usage of the emblem. However, the flag is sometimes use in its wider denotation, for example representing Europe in sporting events and as a pro-democracy banner. It has partly inspired other flags, such as those of other European organisations and those of sovereign states where the EU has been heavily involved (such as Kosovo and Bosnia and Herzegovina).

Anthem

The "Ode to Joy" (The German original title: "An die Freude") is the anthem of the European Union and the Council of Europe; both of which refer to it as the European Anthem due to the Council's intention that, as a semi-modern composition with a mythological flair, it does represent Europe as a whole, rather than any organisation. It is based on the final movement of Beethoven's 9th Symphony composed in 1823, and is played on official occasions by both organisations. It was writen by Ludwig van Beethoven in 1824 and adopted in 1972 and 1985.

"Ode to Joy" (German original title: "An die Freude") is the anthem of the European Union and the Council of Europe; both of which refer to it as the European Anthem due to the Council's intention that, as a semi-modern composition with a mythological flair, it does represent Europe as a whole, rather than any organisation. It is based on the final movement of Beethoven's 9th Symphony composed in 1823, and is played on official occasions by both organisations.

The basic melody was adopted for the hymn "Joyful, Joyful We Adore Thee" (aka "The Hymn of Joy") by Henry van Dyke, as well as for the songs "A Song of Joy" by Miguel Ríos, and "Road to Joy" by Bright Eyes.

The Beethoven setting was adopted as the Anthem of Europe by the Council of Europe in 1972 and the then European Community—since 1993 the European Union—in 1985; the tune was also used for the national anthem of Rhodesia.

It has been used in a number of other contexts: notably in The Beatles second film, HELP!, Stanley Kubrick's 1971 film A Clockwork Orange and in the Die Hard film franchise, as well as the anime series Neon Genesis Evangelion and the film, Evangelion: 3.0 You Can (Not) Redo.

In 1996, it became the theme song for Triple H in the World Wrestling Federation until early 1998. A version of the song was used as the Everybody Loves Raymond theme song.

Recently, it is also used in the game Peggle. An instrumental version of this song is used as theme of the UEFA EURO 2016 Qualifiers and 2018 FIFA World Cup European Qualifiers matches, branded as "European Qualifiers", and since 2005 it is the Copa Libertadores official anthem.

It is also used as a closing theme for both the Summer Olympics and Winter Olympics television broadcasts on many networks. Classical radio station KUSC uses it as the official sign off for their pledge drive fundraising.

Over the years, Beethoven's "Ode to Joy" has remained a protest anthem and a celebration of music. From demonstrators in Chile singing during demonstration against the Pinochet dictatorship, Chinese student broadcast at Tiananmen Square, the concert conducted by Leonard Bernstein after the fall of the Berlin Wall and Daiku (Big Ninth) concerts in Japan every December and one after the 2011 tsunami. It has recently inspired flashmob performances at public spaces by musicians in many countries worldwide, including Choir Without Borders's 2009 performance at a train station in Leipzig, Germany, to mark the 20th and 25th anniversary of the Fall of the Berlin Wall, Hong Kong Festival Orchestra's 2013 performance at a Hong Kong mall, and performance in Sabadell, Spain. A 2013 documentary, Following the Ninth, directed by Kerry Candaele, follows its continuing popularity.

Politics

Constitutional nature

Governance

Budget

Legal system

Courts of Justice

Fundamental rights

The treaties declare that the EU itself is "founded on the values of respect for human dignity, freedom, democracy, equality, the rule of law and respect for human rights, including the rights of persons belonging to minorities ... in a society in which pluralism, non-discrimination, tolerance, justice, solidarity and equality between women and men prevail."

In 2009 the Lisbon Treaty gave legal effect to the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. The charter is a codified catalogue of fundamental rights against which the EU's legal acts can be judged.

Sadly, no one respects Greek, Turkish or Macedonian rights. The UK, Poland  and Hungary are also turing in to police states (especially Poland).

Area of freedom, security and justice

Foreign relations

Military

The WEU

The Western European Union (WEU) was an international organisation and military alliance, tasked with implementing the Modified Treaty of Brussels (1954), an amended version of the original 1948 Treaty of Brussels. The WEU was established by seven European nations allied with the USA (Capitalist Bloc and NATO members) during the Cold War.

The predecessors of the European Union were not devised as a military alliance because NATO was largely seen as appropriate and sufficient for defence purposes. 22 EU members are members of NATO. while the remaining member states follow policies of neutrality. The Western European Union, a military alliance with a mutual defence clause, was disbanded in 2010 as its role had been transferred to the EU.

Article 42 of the Treaty on European Union provides for substantial military integration within the institutional framework of the union. Complete integration is an option that requires unanimity in the European Council of heads of state or government. For now it remains politically gridlocked considering the critical stance of the United Kingdom in particular.

Article 42 does also provide for a permanent structured cooperation between the armed forces of a subset of member states. As of 2015 this option has not been used, despite calls by prominent leaders such as former French President Nicolas Sarkozy, German Chancellor Angela Merkel, former Italian Foreign Minister Franco Frattini and former Belgian Prime Minister Guy Verhofstadt for a common defence for the Union. However the debate has intensified by the standoff between the EU and Russia over Ukraine. With new calls for an EU military by EU commission president Jean-Claude Juncker and by other European leaders and policy makers like the head of the German parliament’s foreign policy committee Norbert Röttgen, saying an EU army was “a European vision whose time has come”.

Article 42 was invoked for the first time by French President François Hollande, following the November 2015 Paris attacks. Speaking in front of a joint session of parliament in Versailles, Hollande described the terrorist attack as an attack against Europe as a whole.

Euro-troops

The Unified Europe Corps is a small, symbolic, French-Dutch-Belgian supervised, volunteer infantry unit made up of volunteers from participating EU nations.

The Netherlands and Germany worked together since 1995 in a Bi-national Army Corps structure, the I. German/Dutch Corps. This is a rapid deployable Army Corps headquarters that can be deployed in the frame of the NATO Response Force. The permanent elements of this corps are a bi-national Staff Support Battalion and a bi-national Communications and Informations Battalion. The Staff Support Battalion consists of a bi-national staff support company and a logistics company. The battalion is based at Münster (Germany) and Eibergen (Netherlands).

When not deployed, 1(GE/NL)Corps consists only of administration and logistic support. However, in an emergency the corps must be able to deploy and lead a military mission inside and outside NATO territory within twenty to thirty days.

The previous Commander (COM), as noted above, is the Dutch Lieutenant General Ton van Loon; the Chief of Staff (COS) is the Dutch Brigadier General Kees van den Heuvel. The Deputy Commander (DCOM) is Dutch Major General Michiel van der Laan. Following a three Deputy Chief of Staff structure, since 2013, the Corps is containing 4 entities led by Brigadier Generals, namely the Support Division, the Operations+Training Division, the Knowledge+Policy Production Division and the Communication+Engagement Division.

The following units are permanently part of HQ 1(GE/NL) Corps:

  • Staff Support Battalion (Münster)
  • Communication and Information Systems (CIS) Battalion (Eibergen and Garderen)

Both these units are fully bi-national and manned with both German and Dutch soldiers.

Commanders

Number. Name. Country. Start of appointment. End of appointment.
9

Lt Gen Michiel van der Laan

Netherlands 7 April 2016

---

8 Lt Gen Volker Halbauer Germany 25 September 2013 7 April 2016
7 Lt Gen Ton van Loon Netherlands 13 April 2010 25 September 2013
6 Lt Gen Volker Wieker Germany 1 July 2008 13 April 2010
5 Lt Gen Tony van Diepenbrugge Netherlands 1 July 2005 1 July 2008
4 Lt Gen Norbert van Heyst Germany 4 July 2002 1 July 2005
3 Lt Gen Marcel Urlings Netherlands 22 March 2000 4 July 2002
2 Lt Gen Karsten Oltmanns Germany

27 November 1997

22 March 2000
1 Lt Gen Ruurd Reitsma Netherlands 30 August 1995 27 November 1997

Peace keepers

EU forces have been deployed on peacekeeping missions from middle and northern Africa to the western Balkans and western Asia. EU military operations are supported by a number of bodies, including the European Defence Agency, European Union Satellite Centre and the European Union Military Staff.

EU border controls and border troops

Frontex is an agency of the EU established to manage the cooperation between national border guards securing its external borders. It aims to detect and stop illegal immigration, human trafficking and terrorist infiltration. In December 2015 the European Commission presented its proposal for a new European Border and Coast Guard Agency having a stronger role and mandate along with national authorities for border management.

Humanitarian aid

Economy

Internal market

Monetary union

First idea of an economic and monetary union in Europe were raised well before establishing the European Communities. For example, already in the League of Nations, Gustav Stresemann asked in 1929 for a European currency against the background of an increased economic division due to a number of new nation states in Europe after World War I.

The plan was to set up a single European currency or exstage rate to create fiscal insatiability, the easy extant of money among tourists and cut inter-EU business overheads.

Various European currency baskets were used as units of account in international bond markets. Some of these were defined in ISO 4217.

1969 Hague Summit

At the summit in The Hague in 1969, the Heads of State or Government defined a new objective of European integration: economic and monetary union (EMU). A group headed by Pierre Werner, Prime Minister of Luxembourg, drafted a report which envisaged the achievement of full economic and monetary union within 10 years according to a plan in several stages.

Snake in the tunnel

The snake in the tunnel was the first attempt at European monetary cooperation in the 1970s, aiming at limiting fluctuations between different European currencies. It was an attempt at creating a single currency band for the European Economic Community (EEC), essentially pegging all the EEC currencies to one another. It stared after the 1972 (at the Paris Summit) and collapsed after 2 years.

Pierre Werner presented a report on economic and monetary union to the EEC on 8 October 1970. The first of three recommended steps involved the coordination of economic policies and a reduction in fluctuations between European currencies.

With the failure of the Bretton Woods system with the Nixon shock in 1971, the Smithsonian agreement set bands of ±2.25% for currencies to move relative to their central rate against the US dollar. This provided a tunnel within which European currencies could trade. However, it implied much larger bands in which they could move against each other: for example if currency A started at the bottom of its band it could appreciate by 4.5% against the dollar, while if currency B started at the top of its band it could depreciate by 4.5% against the dollar.

If both happened simultaneously, then currency A would appreciate by 9% against currency B. This was seen as excessive, and the Basel agreement in 1972 between the six existing EEC members and three about to join established a snake in the tunnel with bilateral margins between their currencies limited to 2.25%, implying a maximum change between any two currencies of 4.5%, and with all the currencies tending to move together against the dollar. This agreement also led to the formal end of the Sterling Area.

The tunnel collapsed in 1973 when the US dollar floated freely. The snake proved unsustainable, with several currencies leaving and in some cases rejoining. By 1977, it had become a Deutsche Mark zone with just the Belgian and Luxembourg franc, the Dutch guilder and the Danish krone tracking it. The Werner plan was abandoned.

The European Monetary System followed the "snake" as a system for monetary coordination in the EEC.

European Unit of Account

The European Unit of Account (EUA) or European Monetary unit (EMU) was a unit of account used in the European Communities from 1975 to 1979, when it was replaced at parity by the European Currency Unit, in turn replaced at parity in 1999 by the Euro.

Initially it was used for Lomé Convention of February 1975 and European Investment Bank operations before being gradually introduced into other sectors of Community activity.

The EUA was a basket of European currencies, originally designed to have the same value in mid-1974 as the IMF special drawing rights basket, both worth US$1.20635; they immediately moved apart in value. Different units of account had previously been used for different purposes, including the budget, the European Coal and Steel Community, and the Common Agriculture Policy following the abandonment of the gold parity unit of account in the early 1970s in the wake of the collapse of the Bretton Woods system.

The free market was formed in 1985 and the European Central Bank (ECB) formed in 1988.

European Currency Unit\ECU

The European Currency Unit, a former basket of the currencies of the European Community, precursor to the euro. Écu, the name of several French coins

The European Currency Unit (₠ or ECU, French pronunciation: ​[eky]) was a basket of the currencies of the European Community member states, used as the unit of account of the European Community before being replaced by the euro on 1 January 1999, at parity. The ECU itself replaced the European Unit of Account, also at parity, on 13 March 1979. The European Exchange Rate Mechanism attempted to minimize fluctuations between member state currencies and the ECU. The ECU was also used in some international financial transactions, where its advantage was that securities denominated in ECUs provided investors with the opportunity for foreign diversification without reliance on the currency of a single country.

The ECU was conceived on 13 March 1979 as an internal accounting unit. It had the ISO 4217 currency code XEU.

On 1 January 1999, the euro (with the code EUR and symbol €) replaced the ECU, at the value €1 = 1 ECU. Unlike the ECU, the euro is a real currency, although not all member states participate (for details on euro membership see Eurozone). Two of the countries in the ECU basket of currencies, UK and Denmark, did not join the eurozone, and a third, Greece, joined late. On the other hand, Finland and Austria joined the Eurozone from the beginning although their currencies were not part of the ECU basket (since they had joined the EU in 1995, two years after the ECU composition was "frozen")

Due to the ECU being used in some international financial transactions, there was a concern that foreign courts might not recognize the euro as the legal successor to the ECU. This was unlikely to be a problem, since it is a generally accepted principle of private international law that states determine their currencies, and that therefore states would accept the European Union legislation to that effect. However, for abundant caution, several foreign jurisdictions adopted legislation to ensure a smooth transition. Of particular importance, the US states of Illinois and New York adopted legislation to ensure a large proportion of international financial contracts recognized the euro as the successor of the ECU.

Although the acronym ECU is formed from English words, écu is also the name of an ancient French coin. That was one reason that a new name was devised for its successor currency, euro, which was felt not to favour any single language.

The currency's symbol, ₠ (U+20A0), comprises an interlaced C and E, which are the initial letters of the phrase 'European Community' in many European languages. However, this symbol was not widely used: few systems at the time could render it and in any case banks preferred (as with all currencies) to use the ISO code XEU.

As the ECU was only an electronic unit of account and not a full currency, it did not have any official coins or notes that could be used for everyday transactions. However, various European countries and organisations like the European Parliament made commemorative and mock-up coins and notes. A common theme on the coins was usually celebrating European unity, such as celebrating membership of the European Union.

The Euro\€

Euro logo plus character

The euro sign; logotype and handwritten.

The Euro is the national currency of the Eurozone. A special Euro currency sign (€) was designed after a public survey had narrowed the original ten proposals down to two. The European Commission then chose the design created by the Belgian Alain Billiet.

  • Inspiration for the € symbol itself came from the Greek letter epsilon (Є). In the quotation, the epsilon is actually represented with the Cyrillic capital letter Ukrainian ye (Є, Unicode U+ 0404) instead of the technically more appropriate Greek lunate epsilon symbol (ϵ, U+03F5). I is a reference to the cradle of European civilisation– and the first letter of the word Europe, crossed by two parallel lines to 'certify' the stability of the euro.

Nine countries (Bulgaria , Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark , Hungary , Poland , Romania , Sweden and the United Kingdom) are EU members but do not use the euro. Before joining the Eurozone, a state must spend two years in the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM II). As of January 2016, only the National Central Bank (NCB) of Denmark participates in ERM II.

  • Bulgarian lev Bulgaria лв BGN Currency board 2007 No target date for euro adoption
  • British pound sterling\Gibraltar pound United Kingdom\ Gibraltar £ GBP\GIP Floating Currency board 1973 Opt-out
  • Croatian kuna Croatia kn HRK Floating 2013 No target date for euro adoption
  • Czech koruna Czech Republic Kč CZK Floating 2004 No target date for euro adoption
  • Danish krone Denmark kr DKK ERM 1973 Opt-out
  • Hungarian forint Hungary Ft HUF Floating 2004 No target date for euro adoption
  • Polish złoty Poland zł PLN Floating 2004 No target date for euro adoption
  • Romanian leu Romania Leu RON Floating 2007 Official target date: 1 January 2019
  • Swedish krona Sweden kr SEK Floating 1995 Pending referendum approval
  • Swiss franc Flag of Campione d'Italia.svg Campione d'Italia (Italy) Fr. CHF Floating 1957 Also unofficially used in Büsingen am Hochrhein, Germany. Swiss Franc is issued by Switzerland.

Denmark and the United Kingdom obtained special EU opt-outs in the original Maastricht Treaty. Both countries are legally exempt from joining the eurozone unless their governments decide otherwise, either by parliamentary vote or referendum. Sweden, which joined the EU in 1995 after the Maastricht Treaty was signed, is required to join the eurozone under the terms of its accession treaty as soon as it fulfils the convergence criteria, which include being part of ERM II for two years. However, the Swedish people turned down euro adoption in 2003 tn the Swedish Euro referendum of 2003 and since then the country has intentionally avoided fulfilling the adoption requirements by not joining ERM II, which is voluntary.

Interest in joining the Eurozone (those states that use the Euro) increased in Denmark, and initially in Poland, as a result of the 2008 financial crisis. In Iceland, there was an increase in interest in joining the European Union, a pre-condition for adopting the euro. However, by 2010 the debt crisis in the eurozone caused interest from Poland, as well as the Czech Republic, to cool. Lithuania adopted the euro in 2015.

Food laws

The ban on GMOs and GM foods

'E-numbers' on food medicine packets

The scheme

E numbers are codes for substances that are permitted to be used as food additives for use within the European Union and Switzerland. The "E" stands for "Europe". They are commonly found on food labels throughout the European Union. Safety assessment and approval are the responsibility of the European Food Safety Authority.

Having a single unified list for food additives was first agreed upon in 1962 with food colouring. In 1964, the directives for preservatives were added, 1970 for antioxidants and 1974 for the emulsifiers, stabilisers, thickeners and gelling agents.

Most additives are only permitted to be used in certain foods and are subject to specific quantitative limits, so it is important to note this list should be used in conjunction with the appropriate European Union legislation.

  • It covers- 
  1. E100–E199 (colours),
  2. E200–E299 (preservatives),
    1. E.G. Potassium Sorbate in my M&A Pharmchem Co-codamol codeine-paracetamol tablets (E202);
    2. E.G. Metabisulphite in my Bristol Laboratories Ltd. paracetamol tablets (E223);
  3. E300–E399 (antioxidants, acidity regulators),
  4. E400–E499 (thickeners, stabilizers, emulsifiers),
    1. E.G. Sorbitol in my Solpadeine Plus codeine-paracetamol tablets (E420);
  5. E500–E599 (acidity regulators, anti-caking agents),
  6. E600–E699 (flavour enhancers),
    1. E.G. E621 and E635 in my Burton's Fish 'n' Chips salted biscuits;
  7. E700–E799 (antibiotics),
  8. E900–E999 (glazing agents and sweeteners),
    1. E.G. Aspartame in my Gaviscon Double Action anti-acid pills (E951).
  9. E1000–E1599 (additional chemicals).

Numbering scheme

The numbering scheme follows that of the List of food additives, Codex Alimentarius' International Numbering System] (INS) as determined by the Codex Alimentarius committee, though only a subset of the INS additives are approved for use in the European Union as food additives. E numbers are also encountered on food labelling in other jurisdictions, including the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf, Australia, South Africa, New York City, New Zealand, Canada and Israel. They are increasingly, though still rarely, found on North American packaging, especially in Canada (Canada most widely outside Quebec and the Maritimes) and New York City on imported European products.

Colloquial use

In some European countries, "E-number" is sometimes used informally as a pejorative term for artificial food additives, and products may promote themselves as "free of E-numbers". This is incorrect, because many components of natural foods have E-numbers (and the number is a synonym for the chemical component), e.g. vitamin (Ascorbic acid (E300)) and lycopene (E160).

Infrastructure

Agriculture

Competition

Energy

The Schengen Agreement

The Schengen Zone or Schengen Area is a free travel zone in Europe. The Schengen Agreement (English pronunciation: /ˈʃɛŋən/) is a treaty which led to the creation of Europe's borderless Schengen Area. It was signed on 14 June 1985 by five of the ten member states of the then European Economic Community near the town of Schengen, Luxembourg.

  • Signed: ‎14 June 1985;.
  • Location: ‎Schengen, Luxembourg.
  • Effective: ‎26 March 1995.

Religion

Education and science

The Bologna Process

The Bologna Process is a series of ministerial meetings and agreements between European countries designed to ensure comparability in the standards and quality of higher education qualifications. Through the Bologna Accords, the process has created the European Higher Education Area, in particular under the Lisbon Recognition Convention. It is named after the place it was proposed, the University of Bologna, with the signing of the Bologna declaration by Education Ministers from 29 European countries in 1999, forming a part of European integration.

It was opened up to other countries signatory to the European Cultural convention, of the Council of Europe; further governmental meetings have been held in Prague (2001), Berlin (2003), Bergen (2005), London (2007), and Leuven (2009).

Prior to the signing of the Bologna declaration, the Magna Charta Universitatum had been issued at a meeting of university rectors celebrating the 900th anniversary of the University of Bologna – and thus of European universities – in 1988. One year before the Bologna declaration, education ministers Claude Allegre (France), Jürgen Rüttgers (Germany), Luigi Berlinguer (Italy) and Baroness Blackstone (UK) signed the Sorbonne declaration in Paris 1998, committing themselves to "harmonising the architecture of the European Higher Education system".

The Bologna Process has 50 participating countries.

Health care

Media freedom

Media freedom is a fundamental right that applies to all member states of the European Union and its citizens, as defined in the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights as well as the European Convention on Human Rights:[246]:1. Within the EU enlargement process, guaranteeing media freedom is named a "key indicator of a country's readiness to become part of the EU".

Criticisms, failures, inter-member backstabbing and alleged in actions

French egocentric behavior

The British have intermittently and often erroneously accused the French of being egocentric and politically bias ever since the mid 1990s.

Germany uber alis

United Germany has been accused repeatedly, with some justification, of dominating and persecuting the EU on ecanomic and trade issues with the intent of ripping nearly everyone of for there corrupt self gain.

German bankers deride French, Dutch and the UK bankers.

Durin 1999-2002

The aleged Italian and German plot rig the Euro

It was an allegation of the early 2000s that it was fixed with a fiscal value set to unfairly boost Italian, Spanish, Greek, Portuguese, Romanian and French economic growth, while in the late 2000s it was accused of being slanted in favor of Austria, Germany, Finland, Belgian, the Netherlands and France.

The 2008- to present European debt crisis

The eurozone crisis resulted from a combination of complex factors, including the globalisation of finance; easy credit conditions during the 2002–2008 period that encouraged high-risk lending and borrowing practices; the financial crisis of 2007–08; international trade imbalances; real estate bubbles that have since burst; the Great Recession of 2008–2012; fiscal policy choices related to government revenues and expenses; and approaches used by states to bail out troubled banking industries and private bondholders, assuming private debt burdens or socializing losses.

In 1992, members of the European Union signed the Maastricht Treaty, under which they pledged to limit their deficit spending and debt levels. However, in the early 2000s, some EU member states were failing to stay within the confines of the Maastricht criteria and turned to securitising future government revenues to reduce their debts and/or deficits, sidestepping best practice and ignoring international standards. This allowed the sovereigns to mask their deficit and debt levels through a combination of techniques, including inconsistent accounting, off-balance-sheet transactions, and the use of complex currency and credit derivatives structures. From late 2009 on, after Greece's newly elected, PASOK government stopped masking its true indebtedness and budget deficit, fears of sovereign defaults in certain European states developed in the public, and the government debt of several states was downgraded. The crisis subsequently spread to Ireland and Portugal, while raising concerns about Italy, Spain, and the European banking system, and more fundamental imbalances within the eurozone.

The under-reporting was exposed through a revision of the forecast for the 2009 budget deficit from "6–8%" of GDP (no greater than 3% of GDP was a rule of the Maastricht Treaty) to 12.7%, almost immediately after the Pasok party won the October 2009 Greek national elections. Large upwards revision of budget deficit forecasts due to the international financial crisis were not limited to Greece: for example, in the United States forecast for the 2009 budget deficit was raised from $407 billion projected in the 2009 fiscal year budget, to $1.4 trillion, while in the United Kingdom there was a final forecast more than 4 times higher than the original. In Greece, the low ("6–8%") forecast was reported until very late in the year (September 2009), clearly not corresponding to the actual situation.

The fact that the Greek debt exceeded $400 billion (over 120% of GDP) and France owned 10% of that debt, struck terror into investors at the word "default". Although market reaction was rather slow—Greek 10-year government bond yield only exceeded 7% in April 2010—they coincided with a large number of negative articles, leading to arguments about the role of international news media and other actors fuelling the crisis.

Mediterranean 'toxic national debt'

The fiscal destruction of Greece, Spain and Iceland

The 'Toxic cucumbers affair'

German vs Bosnian banking subsidiaries allegations

It was reported in the UK media that the Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina had propped up several banks during mid 2009 after a local bank collapsed due to fiscal pressure on it by other European banks it traded with, one of which was it's German parent firm.

The 2014-to date immigration crisis 

Refugees pour out of the chaotic North African states and the dieting corpse of Sub-Saharan Africa. Africans migrate up a supplied Italy and Spain, in to a hacked off France. The EU agrees to dump all future migrants in to Malta and Belgian. The French and Belgian 'Jungle' migrant shanty towns are founded in 2011.

Syrian, Iraqi, Afghan and Iranian refugees vomit in to Turkey, Cyprus and Greece. Koss and Lesbos were overrun. The also start fleeing there own crisis. The EU's national governments mocks the Syrian civil war and try to aggravate it by destabelising the country so far that ISIS could take over in places in 2012.

A 5 man Romanian crime gang went on trial over a £120,000 14 thefts in 3 months in Ribble Valley, Lancashire on the 3rd of June, 2013.

Markfield Recreation Ground was hit by a nasty scuffle on 23\6\2014 in which a free community music festival was taking place. CCTV and mobile phone footage has emerged of the disorder in which occurred during the "unprovoked attack" occurred, which saw rocks and fireworks being hurled. A group of "neo-Nazi Polish fascists" fan amok. A 24-year-old Polish man was stabbed during the incident, but not serious and some of the local Orthodox Jewish community were also targeted by the mob.

The dead Syrian refugee, Aylan Kurdi, was found dead in Bodrum, Turkey, 2 Sep 2015. He becomes a cause celebra. He's is believed to have been born in Kobanî, Syria.

Aylan Kurdi's beach death photo was proven in 2015 to be a fake, UKIP then chime in and denied he even existed!

Various Oxford professionals were blamed by experts on Tuesday 3 March 2015, as a review of the mindset that girls were raped were to blame, with victims perhaps totaling more than 370. Asians, Somalis, Whites and a Kosovar were both victims and perpetrators.

7 White men aged between 30 and 51, including 3 convicted sex offenders were charged and found guilty of those charges on Wednesday 22 April 2015 They also used the "dark web" to communicate with each other on sites such as The Onion Router, known as TOR.

Immigrants that came to France got in trouble with the British again as truckers said they 'have attacked and stabbed' British lorry drivers in Calais amid 'catastrophic' scenes at the French port concerned on 18/6/2015

Trevor Joyce from Abingdon was accused of stabbing Justin Skrewbowski (61) to death in a Poundland store on 8/12/2015, the case continues.

Russia was criticised in many media outlets for bullying and partially annexing Ukraine.

As borders open and close erratically in early and mid 2015 refugees surge in to the former Yugoslavia and Greece. Hungary seals it's border with Croatia and Slovenia, boasting it is a xenophobic state. Yugoslavia becomes overwhelmed, so Slovenia and Macedonia seal there borders. Serbia agrees to look after any one who can get there from the former Yugoslavia, Bulgaria and Romania. Albania and Bulgaria are now hit by refugees and the latter closes it's borders. Aylan Kurdi's beach death photo was proven in 2015 to be a fake, UKIP then chime in and denied he even existed!

The constant torrent of dubious, false or misrepresented stories boomed due to the Syrian, Eritrean and Iraqi immigration crisis. Many EU nations refused to co-operate with the EU dispersal plan lead to Greece, Germany, Sweden, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Italy, Romania and the former Yugoslavia becoming a dustbin for immigrants. The attempted cover-up over the Cologne station and Stockholm rock concert rape gangs gave more fodder to the very people they feared the truth would aggravate. The British media claimed they ere all crooks and the steady drift of endearing and hapless immigrants had become a mindless conquering horde as on the beaches of Greece, which it had not.

The Tories wanted to crack down on Eastern European immigration and thire right once in the UK. UKIP blended the longstanding fear of EU bureaucracy, the ailing Euro (€), Anglo-Irish economic decline, Polonaphobia, Islamaphobia and Syrian refuge worries in to a ugly new anti-EU cabal. They implied wanted to end all UK treaties, overseas relations, trade, tourist, immigration and ethnic communities.

Maps

The 2015 Nobel Peace Prize

The Tunisian Quartette, Greek islanders, Pope Francis, John Kerry, Angela Merkel and Mohammad Javad Zarif were all nominated for the 2015 Noble Peace prize. It was awarded to Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet (an alliance of four Tunisian civil society groups). Every one expected, if not wanted Anglia Merkel to get it. She reportedly bragged about this at a few EU summits, according to the UK and US media.

Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan complained that Turkey's efforts in hosting 2.5 million refugees are not sufficiently acknowledged. He stated that Germany had a far less burden than either Turkey or Lebanon. He then jokingly asked for the prize to be awarded to him. He later made similar comments at an addresses at the W-20 gathering in İstanbul.

On the day the award was given, Danish politician Soeren Espersen described on Twitter his "jubilation" that Merkel didn't win, adding that "she has thrown Europe into one of the largest migration disasters in modern times.”

2015 Volkswagen emissions rigging scandal

Germany's transport, Alexander Dobrindt, VW manipulated diesel emissions tests in Europe on up to 11,000,000 cars. Many others in the West, like France's Renault, also did it to a degree. They apparently only wanted to get a bit of an illicit corporate advantage over their rivals, not to blatantly rip their clientele off!

Volkswagen then admitted rigging emissions tests in Europe and the USA.

The UK, the EU, Ireland, Australia, China, Japan, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Egypt, the UAE, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Spain, Italy, Greece, Romania, Norway, Iceland, Mexico Brazil, Canada and India were all reported to be perusing legal actions in various UK media outlets. The UK was the only country to take VW's side, causing much public and corporate anger in the nation. Germany, the USA and India all sued VW for making false claimed in their adverse and cheating the government inspectors. Some of it's key figures tactically early retired and many cars were either corrected and\or given back to VW.

The EU vs. the UK over Brexit

United Kingdom EU referendum 2016 area results.svg (1)

Precise 2016 EU referendum result.

United Kingdom EU referendum 2016 area results.svg (50-52%)

Those who voted 52%+ for, 52%+ against and those who voted 52% under in either direction (shown in green).

United Kingdom EU referendum 2016 area results 2-tone

Yes\no generalised 2016 EU referendum result.

The British always regarded the EU with suspicion ever since the Maastricht Treaty was drafted in 1992. UKIP, Voters again Europe and the Referendum Party formed to campaign on a UK wide referendum over whether the UK should join or not.

The growing union of and between nations, as well as the idea of EU citizenship, Romania joining the EU, increasing EU bureaucracy and as single EU state made many people fearful and distrustfully towards the EU.

The 2008 economic crash was caused by recklessness and criminality in the Icelandic, American and British economy, but the UK and USA refused to see the truth, with the prior blaming the EU and the latter openly threatening Mexico and China.

As the world's economy imploded and even a Belorussian an Bosnian bank went broke, the EU fell in to chaos and Greece was fiscally destroyed. 

Germany had shifted more to the right under the CDU and it's power hungry leader, Angela Merkel, as a result of this event. There mean and fiscally counter-productive plans would totally destroy the Greek economy.

British fear of the Euro, Greek economic contagion, Greek economic decline, the EU shoveling Syrian\Afghan\Iraqi\Iraqi Kurdish refugees about, ever growing EU bureaucracy, inter-member ecanomic squabbling, lost sovereignty, German economic domination and perceived German egotism drove a wedge between the UK and the EU from 2010 onward. Islamaphobia, Slavaphobia, Russophoba, Anti-Sematisum, Europhobia, Polonophobia, Magyarphobia and Bosniaphobia became a growing minority obsession in England after 2012.

There had been a lot of factually dubious or exaggerated anti-EU stories about eastern Europeans in the UK media since the millennium.

A 5 man Romanian crime gang went on trial over a £120,000 14 thefts in 3 months in Ribble Valley, Lancashire on the 3rd of June, 2013.

The EU was falsely accused in some tabloid newspapers of single handedly undermining the UK economy and of siding with Romanian criminal gangs in various nations. Germany's mean spirited plans could have not worked in the UK without the help of the UK government and officials. As the Western economies folded the British blamed the Poles for taking their jobs as immigration from Africa and the Indian sub-continent went in to hyper-drive. UKIP had replaced the BNP by 2013 as the UK's leading racist/immigrant hating party.

41 year old Latvian crook, Arnis Zalkalns, murdered 14 year old Alice Gross early in the year and as the year ended a 4 man Polish gang launched a brutal attack on a top London law school academic after being let through Britain’s open border controls despite horrific criminal records. The UK government was the accused by the media and some Latvian officials of only letting crooks and not nice or useful people in.

As time went on, UKIP became a champion of the far-right and the darling of the UK tabloid papers, especially the Mail and Express. Their constant claims about Islamic terrorists, immigrants and the EU were soon discredited by the TV and radio news, all political parties bar UKIP and the Tory leadership, experts, universities, the EU, the UN, the Arab League, charities, firms and NGOs. Any indiscretion by a Middle Easterners and Asians was held as a norm, whilst Blacks were treated fairly and only the worst of Whites were exposed.

The constant torrent of dubious, false or misrepresented stories boomed due to the Syrian, Eritrean and Iraqi immigration crisis. Many EU nations refused to co-operate with the EU dispersal plan lead to Greece, Germany, Sweden, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Italy, Romania and the former Yugoslavia becoming a dustbin for immigrants. The attempted cover-up over the Cologne station and Stockholm rock concert rape gangs gave more fodder to the very people they feared the truth would aggravate. The British media claimed they ere all crooks and the steady drift of endearing and hapless immigrants had become a mindless conquering horde as on the beaches of Greece, which it had not.

The dead Syrian refugee, Aylan Kurdi, was found dead in Bodrum, Turkey, 2 Sep 2015. He becomes a cause celebra. He's is believed to have been born in Kobanî, Syria. Aylan Kurdi's beach death photo was soon proven in 2015 to be a fake, UKIP then chime in and denied he even existed.

Germany had shifted more to the far-right under the CDU and it's power hungry leader, Angela Merkel, as a result of this event. Germany would finaly dumped it's interest in civilized politics by 2014, with most people hating immigrants of any kinde and many voting far-right (ether CDU, Eurosceptics or neo-Nazis) in the regional elections of 2014 and 2015.

The Tories wanted to crack down on Eastern European immigration and thire rights once in the UK. UKIP blended the longstanding fear of EU bureaucracy, the ailing Euro (€), Anglo-Irish economic decline, Polonaphobia, Islamaphobia and Syrian refuge worries in to a ugly new anti-EU cabal. They implied wanted to end all UK treaties, overseas relations, trade, tourist, immigration and ethnic communities.

Some Tories wanted a mass passport stripping and\or expulsion of EU nationals, especially Poles, from the UK. Hungary lead Eastern European whinging for more EU cash and the violent expulsion of non-natives.

Both NATO and the USA became concerned that a isolationist UK brawling with a gaggle of post-EU Neo-Nazi/Neo-Faschist European nations would ruin the alliance and undermine the world's operation to Vladmir Putin. Anti-Europeans condemned President Obama's concerned and expressed there dislike of NATO to. Israel soon backed the USA's remarks. Some Tories and many UKIP members wanted a mass passport stripping and\or expulsion of EU nationals, especially Poles, along with Syrian and Iraqi refugees from the UK.

The EU, European journalists organizations and the OSCE media rep all slammed Poland’s new media law on the 31st of December, 2015, which gives government more control over public TV and radio and the right to appoint officials to top broadcast posts. Many Polish citizens held protest rallies against it to.

UKIP used the fact that immigrants commited Brussels Attacks to make the Brexit's then leading case. Nigel Farage was s called "shameful" by David Cammeron for using the Brussels attacks to make the case for the UK to leave the European Union. Mike Hookem said the attacks illustrated that freedom of movement in the bloc was a 'security threat'. UKIP calls for the ethnic cleansing of all immigrants, the closure of all borders and leavening the EU. 

Pro-EU Labour MP, Jo Cox, was murdered at her meating in the village's library with a local man and woman, by a mentally ill xenophobe and long term fascist. MPs and councilors, lead by both the SNP and the Prime minister, David Cameron. The, like most people, reacted with mix of shock, surprise, fear, sorrow and disgust at the killing. Deputy UKIP leader, Paul Nuttall, and some local branches, including- Baetly, Brighton and Hillingdon, broke party ranks and officially condemned her death. The national web page acknowledged the fact after 2 days, unlike the local UKIP branches and the 5 main parties official web sites (Conservative, SNP, Liberal Democrats, Greens and SNP), that did it with in 24 hours on there web pages.

UKIP had unvieled a poster in London 2 hours before Jo Cox's death that showed a que of Middle Easterners in a field with the words "Breaking point." written over there heads. Both the BBC and ITV commented it was politically risky and some interviewed people thought it was racist or racily prejudiced.

The pro-EU Chancellor, George Osborne, said it had the "echoes" of far right literature from the 1930s and could be considered racially prejudiced. The pro-EU Scottish First Minister, Nicola Sturgeon, pro-EU Foreign Secretary Philip Hammond and the anti-EU Labour MP John Mann also condemned it. Later anti-EU cabinet minister, Michael Gove, slammed the UKIP poster, Jo Cox's 's death and UKIP's obsession with kicking out all immigrants.

The UKIP leader, Nigel Farage insisted the growing "row" over the poster would have not happened if Jo Cox had not been brutally killed. He said the timing was bad luck (which is unerverasly agreed by almost every one), that he was not racist, Jo Cox's death was unimportant in the debate, we was being witch-hunted, did not get why people were making a fuss, that the UK was full of useless immigrants and that the bloke that murmured Jo Cox's was not encourage or inspired by their hatred to all foringers (which is unerverasly agreed by almost every one).

Government peer, Baroness Warsi, left the anti-EU 'Brexit' camp and joined the pro-EU 'Remain' camp in disgust at the rowing racism in the anti-EU debate. The government's ex-London mayor candidate, Boris Johnson, told a BBC journalist he did not want a "narrow-minded, close-minded, inward-looking or discriminatory Brexit plan" when challenged over recent events.

Some Tories and many UKIP members wanted a mass passport stripping and\or expulsion of EU nationals, especially Poles, along with Syrian and Iraqi refugees from the UK. 

Both NATO and the USA became concerned that a isolationist UK brawling with a gaggle of post-EU Neo-Nazi/Neo-Faschist European nations would ruin the alliance and undermine the world's operation to Vladimir Putin. Israel has backed the American's comments. The G7, OECD, Toyota, HSBC and IMF are also concerned by the risk of Europe's economy being torn apart by infighting. 

The 2016 Turkish coup

The airforce, a couple of navel bases, some warships, the Presidential Guard and large parts of the 1st Army tried to stage a coup under the aleged unofficial support of the USA, Germany, Saudi Arabia and the EU.

America and the EU had condemned the Gulanis Army/air-force coup against president Euduan, who they accused of being a closet Islamist and a autocrat, when it was winning, but then slammed the Turkish government for winning and offered informal support to those elements that were operating in there countries. The EU was legally obliged by EU law (no EU death penalty) to threaten to cancel Turkish EU applicant status after it threatened hold mass executions after it's heavy purge. The USA threatened to boot it out of NATO as well, dispute NATO no having a death penalty policy or caring what previous Turkish regimes had got up to on the domestic front.

The Turkish president was banned from visiting or teleconferencing\teleaddressing ethnic Turks in Germany. Germany started desperately trying to collapses all remaining relations between them since the Germans had become virulently anti-Turkish since Circa 2010 and Turkey, like Hungary, had backed the Brexit in 2015. The USA was concerned the Turkish regime was going paranoid and that the Gulanists were being used as a scapegoat.

The EU as a whole, especialy France and Germany, ignored the fact that Turkey was slipping rapidly in to chaos and slammed the regime over it's mass arrests and the use of torture against the detainees in several cases. The USA, Russia, Syria, UK, Ireland, Austria, Belgium, The Netherlands, Scandinavia, Lebanon, Israel, Albania, Cyprus, Macedonia, Armenia, Iran, Iraq, Iraq Kurdistan, Bulgaria and Greece were more concered abou the motives for and legality of the arrests themselves rather than the numbers or brutality in the police cells there after.

Spanish farming in late 2016 and early 2017

The British supply of couchettes, broccoli and lettuce imploded from December 2016 due to cold weather and stocks ran low in the UK by January 2017. The bad weather had devastated farms in Macedonia, Bulgaria, Albania, mainlands Greece and mainland Spain, as well as causing some damage in parts of southern France, Italy and Portugal’s mainland territory. The facts were soon forgotten in the bilesum rhetoric that soon followed.

Eurosceptics veered between it being a faliuer of the transport system (ie the ship sunk and\or the cargo went moldy) and the belief that the EU had deliberately ruined crops by for example switching fertilizer with weedkiller at the corporate depot the farmers bought it at. They also go fixated that it was a EU run trade blocked lead by Germany or they had forcibly taken the stuff of the farmers and back to Germany. It was also held that Greece was a sub-huma polar country that was better off dead and were conspiring with Germany and Portugal to ruin Spain and the UK.

Eurosceptic pushed the idea of food self-sufficiency, which the BNP had previously raised in the mid-1990s to no avail. The Eurosceptics doubted the quality, morality and reliability of any imports unlike the BNP who only mentioned reliability as an issue. The BNP had also raised issues that they confessed they were stopped on such as coconuts only growing in warm climates and heavy UK wheat imports from the USA, unlike the Eurosceptic which they ignore or denied.

Brexit?

The term "Brexit"

Brexit (like its early variant, "Brixit") is a portmanteau of "British" and "exit". It was derived by analogy from "Grexit", referring to a hypothetical withdrawal of Greece from the eurozone (and possibly also the EU). The term "Brexit" may have first been used in reference to a possible UK withdrawal from the EU by Peter Wilding in a Euractiv blog post on 15 May 2012. The terms "hard Brexit" and "soft Brexit" are much used unofficially, and are understood to describe the prospective relationship between the UK and the EU after withdrawal, ranging from hard, that could involve the UK trading with the EU like any other non-EU-member country under World Trade Organisation rules but with no obligation to accept free movement of people, to soft, that might involve retaining membership of the EU single market for goods and services and at least some free movement of people, according to European Economic Area rules.

General history

Opinion polls taken after EU accession in 1973 until the end of 2015 generally revealed popular British support for EEC or EU membership. Similarly, in the United Kingdom European Communities membership referendum of 1975, two-thirds of British voters favoured membership. A clear exception was the year 1980, the first full year of Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher's term of office, when the highest ever rejection of membership was measured, with 65% opposed to and 26% in favour of membership.

After Thatcher had negotiated a rebate of British membership payments in 1984, those favouring the EEC maintained a lead in the opinion polls, except during 2000, as Prime Minister Tony Blair aimed for closer EU integration including adoption of the euro currency, and around 2011, as immigration into the United Kingdom became increasingly noticeable. As late as December 2015 there was, according to ComRes, a clear majority in favour of remaining in the EU, albeit with a warning that voter intentions would be considerably influenced by the outcome of Prime Minister David Cameron's ongoing EU reform negotiations, especially with regards to the two issues of "safeguards for non-Eurozone member states" and "immigration". The following events are relevant.

The British always regarded the EU with suspicion ever since the Maastricht Treaty was drafted in 1992. UKIP, Voters again Europe and the Referendum Party formed to campaign on a UK wide referendum over whether the UK should join or not.

The growing union of and between nations, as well as the idea of EU citizenship, Romania joining the EU, increasing EU bureaucracy and as single EU state made many people fearful and distrustfully towards the EU.

The 2008 economic crash was caused by recklessness and criminality in the Icelandic, American and British economy, but the UK and USA refused to see the truth, with the prior blaming the EU and the latter openly threatening Mexico and China.

As the world's economy imploded and even a Belorussian an Bosnian bank went broke, the EU fell in to chaos and Greece was fiscally destroyed. 

Germany had shifted more to the right under the CDU and it's power hungry leader, Angela Merkel, as a result of this event. There mean and fiscally counter-productive plans would totally destroy the Greek economy.

British fear of the Euro, Greek economic contagion, Greek economic decline, the EU shoveling Syrian\Afghan\Iraqi\Iraqi Kurdish refugees about, ever growing EU bureaucracy, inter-member ecanomic squabbling, lost sovereignty, German economic domination and perceived German egotism drove a wedge between the UK and the EU from 2010 onward. Islamaphobia, Slavaphobia, Russophoba, Anti-Sematisum, Europhobia, Polonophobia, Magyarphobia and Bosniaphobia became a growing minority obsession in England after 2012.

There had been a lot of factually dubious or exaggerated anti-EU stories about eastern Europeans in the UK media since the millennium.

A 5 man Romanian crime gang went on trial over a £120,000 14 thefts in 3 months in Ribble Valley, Lancashire on the 3rd of June, 2013.

The EU was falsely accused in some tabloid newspapers of single handedly undermining the UK economy and of siding with Romanian criminal gangs in various nations. Germany's mean spirited plans could have not worked in the UK without the help of the UK government and officials. As the Western economies folded the British blamed the Poles for taking their jobs as immigration from Africa and the Indian sub-continent went in to hyper-drive. UKIP had replaced the BNP by 2013 as the UK's leading racist/immigrant hating party.

41 year old Latvian crook, Arnis Zalkalns, murdered 14 year old Alice Gross early in the year and as the year ended a 4 man Polish gang launched a brutal attack on a top London law school academic after being let through Britain’s open border controls despite horrific criminal records. The UK government was the accused by the media and some Latvian officials of only letting crooks and not nice or useful people in.

As time went on, UKIP became a champion of the far-right and the darling of the UK tabloid papers, especially the Mail and Express. Their constant claims about Islamic terrorists, immigrants and the EU were soon discredited by the TV and radio news, all political parties bar UKIP and the Tory leadership, experts, universities, the EU, the UN, the Arab League, charities, firms and NGOs. Any indiscretion by a Middle Easterners and Asians was held as a norm, whilst Blacks were treated fairly and only the worst of Whites were exposed.

The constant torrent of dubious, false or misrepresented stories boomed due to the Syrian, Eritrean and Iraqi immigration crisis. Many EU nations refused to co-operate with the EU dispersal plan lead to Greece, Germany, Sweden, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Italy, Romania and the former Yugoslavia becoming a dustbin for immigrants. The attempted cover-up over the Cologne station and Stockholm rock concert rape gangs gave more fodder to the very people they feared the truth would aggravate. The British media claimed they ere all crooks and the steady drift of endearing and hapless immigrants had become a mindless conquering horde as on the beaches of Greece, which it had not.

The dead Syrian refugee, Aylan Kurdi, was found dead in Bodrum, Turkey, 2 Sep 2015. He becomes a cause celebra. He's is believed to have been born in Kobanî, Syria. Aylan Kurdi's beach death photo was soon proven in 2015 to be a fake, UKIP then chime in and denied he even existed.

Germany had shifted more to the far-right under the CDU and it's power hungry leader, Angela Merkel, as a result of this event. Germany would finaly dumped it's interest in civilized politics by 2014, with most people hating immigrants of any kinde and many voting far-right (ether CDU, Eurosceptics or neo-Nazis) in the regional elections of 2014 and 2015.

The Tories wanted to crack down on Eastern European immigration and thire rights once in the UK. UKIP blended the longstanding fear of EU bureaucracy, the ailing Euro (€), Anglo-Irish economic decline, Polonaphobia, Islamaphobia and Syrian refuge worries in to a ugly new anti-EU cabal. They implied wanted to end all UK treaties, overseas relations, trade, tourist, immigration and ethnic communities.

Some Tories wanted a mass passport stripping and\or expulsion of EU nationals, especially Poles, from the UK. Hungary lead Eastern European whinging for more EU cash and the violent expulsion of non-natives.

Both NATO and the USA became concerned that a isolationist UK brawling with a gaggle of post-EU Neo-Nazi/Neo-Faschist European nations would ruin the alliance and undermine the world's operation to Vladmir Putin. Anti-Europeans condemned President Obama's concerned and expressed there dislike of NATO to. Israel soon backed the USA's remarks. Some Tories and many UKIP members wanted a mass passport stripping and\or expulsion of EU nationals, especially Poles, along with Syrian and Iraqi refugees from the UK.

The EU, European journalists organizations and the OSCE media rep all slammed Poland’s new media law on the 31st of December, 2015, which gives government more control over public TV and radio and the right to appoint officials to top broadcast posts. Many Polish citizens held protest rallies against it to.

UKIP used the fact that immigrants commited Brussels Attacks to make the Brexit's then leading case. Nigel Farage was s called "shameful" by David Cammeron for using the Brussels attacks to make the case for the UK to leave the European Union. Mike Hookem said the attacks illustrated that freedom of movement in the bloc was a 'security threat'. UKIP calls for the ethnic cleansing of all immigrants, the closure of all borders and leavening the EU. 

Pro-EU Labour MP, Jo Cox, was murdered at her meating in the village's library with a local man and woman, by a mentally ill xenophobe and long term fascist. MPs and councilors, lead by both the SNP and the Prime minister, David Cameron. The, like most people, reacted with mix of shock, surprise, fear, sorrow and disgust at the killing. Deputy UKIP leader, Paul Nuttall, and some local branches, including- Baetly, Brighton and Hillingdon, broke party ranks and officially condemned her death. The national web page acknowledged the fact after 2 days, unlike the local UKIP branches and the 5 main parties official web sites (Conservative, SNP, Liberal Democrats, Greens and SNP), that did it with in 24 hours on there web pages.

UKIP had unvieled a poster in London 2 hours before Jo Cox's death that showed a que of Middle Easterners in a field with the words "Breaking point." written over there heads. Both the BBC and ITV commented it was politically risky and some interviewed people thought it was racist or racily prejudiced.

The pro-EU Chancellor, George Osborne, said it had the "echoes" of far right literature from the 1930s and could be considered racially prejudiced. The pro-EU Scottish First Minister, Nicola Sturgeon, pro-EU Foreign Secretary Philip Hammond and the anti-EU Labour MP John Mann also condemned it. Later anti-EU cabinet minister, Michael Gove, slammed the UKIP poster, Jo Cox's 's death and UKIP's obsession with kicking out all immigrants.

The UKIP leader, Nigel Farage insisted the growing "row" over the poster would have not happened if Jo Cox had not been brutally killed. He said the timing was bad luck (which is unerverasly agreed by almost every one), that he was not racist, Jo Cox's death was unimportant in the debate, we was being witch-hunted, did not get why people were making a fuss, that the UK was full of useless immigrants and that the bloke that murmured Jo Cox's was not encourage or inspired by their hatred to all foringers (which is unerverasly agreed by almost every one).

Government peer, Baroness Warsi, left the anti-EU 'Brexit' camp and joined the pro-EU 'Remain' camp in disgust at the rowing racism in the anti-EU debate. The government's ex-London mayor candidate, Boris Johnson, told a BBC journalist he did not want a "narrow-minded, close-minded, inward-looking or discriminatory Brexit plan" when challenged over recent events.

The EU vs. the UK over a Brexit

United Kingdom EU referendum 2016 area results.svg (1)

Precise 2016 EU referendum result.

United Kingdom EU referendum 2016 area results.svg (50-52%)

Those who voted 52%+ for, 52%+ against and those who voted 52% under in either direction (shown in green).

United Kingdom EU referendum 2016 area results 2-tone

Yes\no generalised 2016 EU referendum result.

Some Tories and many UKIP members wanted a mass passport stripping and\or expulsion of EU nationals, especially Poles, along with Syrian and Iraqi refugees from the UK. 

Both NATO and the USA became concerned that a isolationist UK brawling with a gaggle of post-EU Neo-Nazi/Neo-Faschist European nations would ruin the alliance and undermine the world's operation to Vladimir Putin. Israel has backed the American's comments. The G7, OECD, Toyota, HSBC and IMF are also concerned by the risk of Europe's economy being torn apart by infighting. 

EU initial and ill tempered off-the-cuff responses

  • France- End immigration treaties and expel it's illegal immigrants in to the UK. Blockade the UK, like the USA did Cuba in the Cold War.
  • EU- End cut price mobile phone roaming fees, charge a massive surcharge on UK holiday bookings in the EU nations and expel the UK from the EEA.
  • Italy- Blockade the UK, like the USA did Cuba in the Cold War?
  • Hungary- Cease UK assets in Hungary and violently expelled British people.
  • Poland- Have a anti-UK mass passport stripping and\or expulsion of UK nationals, especially if the UK dose it to Poles living in the UK. Eventually a USA vs. Cold War Cuba style blockaded, if not a war in due time. 
  • Spain- Conquer the Rock of Gibraltar. Blockade the UK, like the USA did Cuba in the Cold War.
  • IMF- Drive Greece in to bankruptcy.
  • Germany- Destroy the European as well as UK economy, invade the UK and declare, start racist persecution of the British on racist lines and declare the EU a French\German run de-facto (republican) empire with Germany in charge.
  • Ireland- End all relations with the UK
  • Ryan Air - End all new projects in the UK
  • Luxembourg for the EU as a whole-
    • Ban UK trade with the EU or the imposition of heavy trade tariffs;
    • Throw out all British citizens.
    • Support for Spain’s racist claim over Gibraltar;
    • Encourage French and German and ban English;
    • Withdrawal of British eligibility for Interail and ERASMUS placements;
    • A ban on BBC period dramas.
    • Undermine City of London and shift the EU’s financial hub to Frankfurt or Paris;
    • Deportation of British criminals in EU prisons to Turkey, in exchange for refugees in Turkey.

Euroseceptic informal\illicit response to Brexit

  • A 500% rise in racist attacks, especially Jews, French, Poles, Arabs, Muslims and Ukrainians.
  • The volentery, if not forced violent (in the Soke of Peterborough and Huntingtonshire) expulsion of non-natives, especial Poles, Arabs, Muslims and Jews.
  • Promote the far right across Europe, especially the AfD of Germany, the Front Nacional of France and Jobik of Hungary.
  • Persecute Remain voters.
  • Start encouraging relations with New Zealand and Iran.
  • Demand free heath care in France for tourists, but denies the same to French in the UK.
  • A massive rise in attacks on Jews, Muslims, French and Poles.
  • The UK government wanted a isolationist 'hermit state', but relented when the USA, India, Russia, Brazil, Turkey, Canada, the USA, S. Africa, China and Australia approached the UK for trade.

EU official\unconstitutional response to Brexit

  • Germany- Banned from trade with the EU as a whole. Demands all the duties of EU membership, but none of the privileges. Threatens to sever relations and even close thire embassy in the UK. Force Ireland to close the border to N. Ireland.
  • France- Banned from trade with the EU as a whole. Demands all the duties of EU membership, but none of the privileges.
  • Italy- Banned from trade with the EU as a whole. Demands all the duties of EU membership, but none of the privileges.
  • Spain- Banned from trade with the EU as a whole. Demands all the duties of EU membership, but none of the privileges. Threatens to sever relations and even close embassy.
  • Slovakia- Business as usual.
  • Ireland- Business as usual.
  • Poland- Business as usual.
  • German Auto-industry- Business as usual.
  • Denmark- A call for compromise and a trade deal similar to the EU-Canada one or EEA membership.
  • EU president Donald Tusk- A call for compromise and a trade deal similar to the EU-Canada one or EEA membership.

Brexit: The Movie

Brexit: The Movie was a 'crowdfunded' 2016 British documentary film written and directed by Martin Durkin, advocating for the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union, commonly called "Brexit" (a portmanteau of "Britain" or "British" and "exit").

The European Union: In or Out

The European Union: In or Out was a British television debate that was first broadcast on BBC Two on 2 April 2014. The hour-long live debate between Nick Clegg and Nigel Farage was hosted by David Dimbleby. Questions came from the audience, with an equal number of people for and against British membership of the European Union. A radio debate between Clegg and Farage on LBC, hosted by Nick Ferrari, was broadcast one week before the televised debate.

The debate was broadcast ahead of the European Parliament election, 2014 and was set across the backdrop of a proposed referendum on United Kingdom membership of the European Union.

According to a 2017 BBC documentary

According to a 2017 BBC documentary panorama life in immigration town raised the following points about life in 2017 in Slough.

  1. Spanish moved over hear to flee their ding nation*.
  2. Poles and Romanians are willing to flog them selves harder than Anglos\Blacks\Asians in factories who are Anglophobeic anyhow.
  3. Roma are a disorderly and misunderstood rabble nobody loves anyhow.
  4. Asians think Roma are rude.
  5. Blacks said they came in the 1950s when the government wanted extra labour, but the Poles now come to act as cheep labour for mean bosses.
  6. No one welcomed or wanted the Poles in 2007 or 2017**.
  7. Anglos want to leave since they are immigrant phobic.
  8. Slough is booming, but on the back of a large and willing pool of Slavic slave*** labour.
  9. The Poles think they have the right and duty to take over. They think Anglos are a inferior people.
  10. The self proclaimed national loyalties are:
    1. Roma= British\Roma and or Romania.
    2. Poles= British\Polish (kids and teens), but Polish (adults)
    3. Romanians= British (kids)
    4. Blacks= British (adults)
    5. Coloreds= British (adults)
    6. Asians= British (adults)
    7. Anglos= British (adults)
    8. Irish= No interviews
    9. Italians= No interviews
    10. French= No interviews

.*They now beat up our ex-pats in Spain (as of 2012). .** Who don't like Anglos either by 2017. .*** Better than what they got back homeland (as of 2012).

Bile and anger during the Brexit debate

Lead by the likes of Nigel Farage and Boris Johnson, they are thriving on the perfect storm made by the colliding refugee crisis, terrorist threat and continued global financial difficulty, believing a far right\Euroceptic political narrative that bore little resemblance to the empirical truth as the parties' supposed experts conflated issues as gave broad brush stroke answers to any questions that applied to the crucial issues they didn’t want to confront or were found to be confused about.

Demography in Boston, Lincolnshire

Population

According to the 2001 census, there were 35,124 people residing in Boston town, of whom 48.2% were male and 51.8% were female. Children under five accounted for approximately 5% of the population. 23% of the resident population in Boston were of retirement age. In the 2011 census the Borough of Boston had a population of 64,600 with 15% of the population having been born outside of the UK and 11% having been born in EU accession countries (2001-2011) such as Poland and Lithuania. The non-white population made up 2.4% of the total population in 2011.

Religion

80% of the population are Christians, the next highest religious minority were Hindus making up 0.7%.

Brexit vote

It voted 75.5% for Brexit and is almost entirely racial segregated between White English locals, Other White British and non-White British\immigrants.

September 16th, 2016 update

  1. Hungary has vertuly sealed it's borders, is kicking out loads of foringers, won't let in immigrants, cut most links with the EU and is rabidly xenophobic.
  2. Austria's presidential election is being re-run after a marginal win by the Greens in a dodgy election. Both sides continue to screw about and the sticky strip on the postal vote envelopes will not stick down in some cases. Most Austrians want an isolationist nazi-theocracy.
  3. The UK government is dithering, racist attacks are growing and UKIP calls for the nation to become a euro-phobic hermit state. 
  4. As the AfD gain in Germany at the other parties exspence, it wants to see kicking out of all foringers, racist attacks in the former GDR go up and the party gets more kudos for pushing a re-vamped version of Nazism (they cut the anti-gay/lesbian, Thule theory, hollow earth theory and invading Western Europe).

September 23rd, 2016 update

  1. Belgian dumped refugees in to France, who dumps there immigrants in Italy and they all dump them on Greece by every one else (Lesbos has recently had a food riot).
  2. Germany is still loan sharking Greece to death with predatory lending.
  3. Brexiteirs, especially UKIP's Nigel Fange, want a total closing of EU/UK relations. Even embassies would close as things go like DPRK-S. Korean reasons already are.
  4. Germany wants to quarantine and blockade both the UK and Hungary like the USA did to Cuba during the Cold War.
  5. Hungary will soon be booted, but it may leave soon anyhow, as it plans to become a neo-Nazi hermit state.
  6. Most Eurosceptic Germans, especially Saxons, Meckliaburgers and Bravarians want to topple democracy, wipe out non-whites (especially Muslims), kill ex-pats from other nations, and after that... invade the UK, Italy, France, Belgium, Poland, the Czech Republic, Austria and Hungary in the name of The racist far right.

Visual data time

Euro-statistical maps

The factual data maps

Claimed 2014-2015 IQ results maped

Surveyed 2014 IQ levels. It is a bit dodgy since a IQ below 70 would cause mental retardation and a large part of Africa is not so dumb as to need a mental hospital.

Upgraded Human Language Families (wikicolors)

World languages in 2014.

Y-Haplogoroups 2017

Y-Haplogrpous in 2012.

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EU images!

5 awesome EEA national images!

See also

  1. EU
  2. OECD
  3. ASEAN
  4. COMECON
  5. Europe
  6. Euronews
  7. EBU
  8. NATO
  9. EFTA
  10. ECOWAS
  11. ASEAN
  12. OPEC
  13. CACM
  14. EWCOWAS
  15. Arab League
  16. Warsaw Pact
  17. Threat construction
  18. Council for Mutual Economic Assistance
  19. Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe
  20. Organisation for European Economic Co-Operation
  21. Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe
  22. Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe (the CSCE)
  23. Gulf Co-operation Council
  24. Council of Europe
  25. A prayer for Europe
  26. Eurosceptics
  27. Marshall Plan
  28. Berlin airlift
  29. Allied plans for Germany
  30. Czechoslovak coup d'état of 1948
  31. Central American Integration System
  32. 1950–1953 Korean War
  33. CACM
  34. UN
  35. USSR
  36. GDR
  37. FRG
  38. ECOWAS
  39. ASEAN
  40. Council for Mutual Economic Assistance
  41. Central American Integration System
  42. COMECON
  43. Arab League
  44. OPEC
  45. Gulf Co-operation Council
  46. Germany's Fulda Gap
  47. Eutelsat 1F1
  48. Deutsches Institut für Normung
  49. Former Yugoslavia
  50. Exercise Reforger
  51. Inner German Border
  52. Checkpoint Charlie
  53. Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf
  54. European Broadcasting Union
  55. European Space Agency
  56. Caricom Customs Union
  57. The southern Danube route
  58. Germany's Fulda Gap
  59. Soviet invasion of Denmark
  60. "Poland is 'toast'!"
  61. North German Plain
  62. Deutsches Institut für Normung
  63. Lomé Convention of February 1975

External links

  1. https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2016/world/europe/britain-european-union-brexit.html?_r=0
  2. http://www.economist.com/brexit
  3. http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-32810887
  4. http://www.investopedia.com/terms/b/brexit.asp
  5. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brexit
  6. http://www.economist.com/blogs/bagehot/2012/06/britain-and-eu-0
  7. http://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-britain-eu-ratings-idUKKBN13610L
  8. http://www.parliament.uk/about/living-heritage/transformingsociety/tradeindustry/importexport/overview/europe/
  9. http://theconversation.com/polling-history-40-years-of-british-views-on-in-or-out-of-europe-61250
  10. http://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/episode/b08h4y03/panorama-life-in-immigration-town
  11. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brexit
  12. https://www.agra-net.com/agra/agra-europe/greek-#farms-hit-by-storms--1.htm
  13. http://greece.greekreporter.com/tag/greek-farms/
  14. http://www.greekfarmsmo.com/
  15. http://greece.greekreporter.com/tag/greek-farms-workers/http://www.yorkshirepost.co.uk/news/opinion/grant-woodward-brexit-is-baby-boomers-ultimate-betrayal-1-7981175
  16. https://www.agra-net.com/agra/agra-europe/greek-#farms-hit-by-storms--1.htm
  17. http://greece.greekreporter.com/tag/greek-farms/
  18. http://www.greekfarmsmo.com/
  19. http://greece.greekreporter.com/tag/greek-farms-workers/http://www.yorkshirepost.co.uk/news/opinion/grant-woodward-brexit-is-baby-boomers-ultimate-betrayal-1-7981175
  20. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_debt_crisis
  21. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mario_Draghi
  22. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-34345210
  23. http://www.tradingeconomics.com/germany/balance-of-trade
  24. https://www.wsj.com/articles/germany-to-investigate-volkswagen-over-european-emissions-testing-1442838037
  25. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2015/09/german-minister-vw-manipulated-emissions-europe-150924113719147.html
  26. http://www.euronews.com/2015/06/19/the-lies-of-the-winners-a-german-film-which-looks-at-how-society-can-be
  27. http://ktfnews.com/angela-merkel-manipulated-jesuit-trained-mario-draghi/
  28. http://news.sky.com/story/vw-manipulated-tests-in-europe-says-germany-10345319
  29. http://gbtimes.com/blogs/numbers-manipulated-euro-zone
  30. http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_MEMO-15-4778_en.htm
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  32. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regulation_of_genetically_modified_organisms_in_the_European_Union#cite_note-Davison2010-1
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