Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1990-009-13, Helsinki, KSZE-Konferenz

Erich Honecker of the GDR and Helmut Schmidt of the FRG at the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe held in Helsinki in 1975.

The planEdit

It was to create a organisation the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe (the CSCE) designed to enhance security, harmony, good will and cooperation between treat members.

The treatyEdit

The Helsinki Accords, Helsinki Final Act, or Helsinki Declaration was the first act of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe held in Finlandia Hall of Helsinki, Finland, during July and August 1, 1975.

Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Finland, France, W. Germany and E. Germany were the most eager to sing up. A total of 35 states, including the USA, Canada and most European states signed the declaration in an attempt to improve relations between the Communist bloc and the West. The Helsinki Accords, however, were not binding as they did not have 'treaty status'. Albania was opposed to it and the Vatican chose to stay neutral in world affairs.

he Accords' "Declaration on Principles Guiding Relations between Participating States" (also known as "The Decalogue") enumerated the following 10 points:

The 10 basic rulesEdit

  1. Sovereign equality, respect for the rights inherent in sovereignty.
  2. Refraining from the threat or use of force.
  3. Inviolability of frontiers.
  4. Territorial integrity of States.
  5. Peaceful settlement of disputes.
  6. Non-intervention in internal affairs.
  7. Respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the freedom of thought, conscience, religion or belief.
  8. Equal rights and self-determination of peoples.
  9. Co-operation among States.
  10. Fulfillment in good faith of obligations under international law.

Aditional rulesEdit

  1. Friendly human interaction.
  2. Freedom of information and freedom of the press.
  3. Cooperation and exchange in cultural issues.
  4. Cooperation and exchange in educational issues.


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