The Italian Social Republic (1943-1945) was a puppet state created by Germany in northern Italy after that country had signed an armistice with the Allies and switched sides in World War II. It was lead by Benito Mussolini (₳|₩) as both head of state and head of government (₳|₩), under the title of "Il Duce". The Kingdom of Italy continued to exist in southern Italy in the territory liberated by the Allies.
Italy allied with Germany and declared war on the United Kingdom and Vichy France in 1940. In 1941, Italy - with the other Axis powers, Germany and Imperial Japan - declared war on the United States and the Soviet Union. Following the Allied invasion of Sicily (₳|₩) in 1943, the King dismissed Mussolini and appointed Marshal Pietro Badoglio as Premier. The Badoglio government declared war on Germany, which quickly occupied most of the country and freed Mussolini, who led a brief-lived regime in the north. An anti-fascist popular resistance movement grew during the last two years of the war, harassing German forces before they were driven out in April 1945.
- 22x20px Kingdom of Italy (1861-1922)
- 22x20px Kingdom of Italy: Fascist Italy (1922-1943)
- 22x20px Kingdom of Italy: Kingdom of the South (1943-1945)
- 22x20px Kingdom of Italy (1945-1946)
- 22x20px Italian Republic (From 1946)