A Khrushchyovka (Russian: хрущёвка, pronounced [xrʊˈɕːɵfkə]) is a type of prefabricated Soviet apartment building that was built in the former USSR.
Is namesake was Nikita Khrushchev, who the party director for Moscow in the 1950s and who was in charge of the Soviet government in the late 1950s and early 1960s.
They were first thought of as a way of tackling the post war housing shortage of 1947 to 1951 and later expanded in to various other urban housing projects since they were cheep, quickly erected, used less ground space than other options and were easy to build.
The buildings them selves
They are a low-cost, pre-fabricated concrete-panelled or later brick 3 to 5 storied (or up to 12 in Moscow) apartment building which was developed in the USSR during the late 1950s and early 1960s. There were meant to last for 25 years, but there were later brick designs that were meant to be permanent.
Nikita Khrushchev (then the party director of Moscow), declared low-cost, easy build and quick to build technologies the objective of Soviet architects in the mid 1950s, who he had encouraged since the early 1950's. Many low quality experimental housing models had been erected in some cites during the early to mid 1950s, including the low grade early Khrushchyovka types in parts of Moscow.
By this time, the variouse competing experimental designs were full tested out by there by real-life construction. the use of prefabricated concrete panels was considered superior and other construction plans like using poured to set in-situ concrete, were discarded as obsolete and inefficient.
During 1954-1961, engineer Vitaly Lagutenko, chief planner of Moscow since 1956, designed and tested the mass-scale, industrialized construction process, relying on concrete panel plants and a quick assembly schedule.
During 1961, Lagutenko’s institute released the K-7 design of a prefabricated 5-story building that became typical of the Khrushchyovka. 64,000 units (3,000,000 m2 (32,000,000 sq ft)) of this type were built in Moscow from 1961 to 1968.
Many of those built in Moscow were 9 or 12 floors high due to space limitations in the inner city zone. The last 5 story Moscow Khrushyovka was completed there during 1971, but more were built in the rest of the USSR until the end of communism.
Nikita Khrushchev, spread there construction nation wide after he became leader in the late 1950s.
Millions of these housing units are now way past their designed lifetime. They are being renovated in Latvia and demolished in Moscow.
Two Khrushchyovka related concrete plants were biult in Moscow at Presnensky in 1953 and Khoroshevsky in 1954.