The Five Eyes \ The 5 Eyes (FVEY), is a signals intelligence alliance comprising Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States and are bound together by the multilateral UKUSA Security Agreement, a treaty for joint cooperation in intelligence.
The Five EyesEdit
- New Zealand.
- United Kingdom.
- United States.
1943 founding nationsEdit
1948 expansion treatyEdit
1952 expansion treatyEdit
1956 expansion treatyEdit
1955 expansion treatyEdit
- West Germany.
1956 expansion treatyEdit
- New Zealand
The "Five Eyes" communityEdit
These allied countries include NATO members, other European democracies such as Sweden, and allies in the Pacific, in particular Singapore and South Korea.
- According to Edward Snowden: Israel and Denmark are also part of it.
Third Party partners" to the Five Eyes nationsEdit
- The Netherlands
The Circle of Bilateral Domestic Intelligence Surveillance TrustEdit
- South Korea,
- New Zealand
The second tier of Western surveillance expertiseEdit
- France tried but the USA said no since France spies on the USA.
- Germany was invited by did not join.
- Israel is, reportedly, an observer in Five Eyes.
- Singapore is reported to have partnered with the Five Eyes.
The "Nine Eyes"Edit
- The Netherlands,
- A fictionalized Nine Eyes, with a different list of member states (including South Africa and China), was a key plot device in the 2015 film Spectre.
The "Fourteen Eyes"\SIGINT Seniors Europe (SSEUR)Edit
- Germany\ West Germany,
17, 25, 41 and othersEdit
An area specific sharing among the 41 nations that formed the allied coalition in Afghanistan; A shared effort of the Five Eyes nations in “focused cooperation” on computer network exploitation with:
- Czech Republic,
- The Netherlands,
- South Korea,
Club of BerneEdit
The Club of Berne has 17 members including primarily European States; the US is not a member; The Counterterrorist Group: a wider membership than the 17 European States that make up the Club of Berne, and includes the US; NATO Special Committee: made up of the heads of the security services of NATO's 28 member countries.
Den Europæiske TreEdit
The Den Europæiske Tre (Eng: The European Three) is a reported Finnish, Danish, Swedish, German and Dutch joint intelligence grouping. Danish, Swedish and German founded it in the late 1970s or early 1980s (hence the name). Finland and the Netherlands joined in the early 1990s out of fear of Middle Eastern terrorism.
Rumored new recruitsEdit
On-line rumors and news-feeds held that 3 new nations were to be recruited as yet another layer in 2012, but nothing has happened so far.
These nations were:
States can't spy heavily on their own peopleEdit
Britain's GCHQ intelligence agency can spy on anyone but British nationals, the NSA can conduct surveillance on anyone but Americans, and Germany's BND (Bundesnachrichtendienst) foreign intelligence agency can spy on anyone but Germans. This is according to Edward Snowden in 2013.
The origins of the Five Eyes alliance can be traced back to the Atlantic Charter, which was issued in August 1941 to lay out the Allied goals for the post-war world. On 17 May 1943, the British–US Communication Intelligence Agreement, also known as the BRUSA Agreement, was signed by the UK and US governments to facilitate co-operation between the US War Department and the British Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS). On 5 March 1946, the secret treaty was formalized as the UKUSA Agreement, which forms the basis for all signal intelligence cooperation between the NSA and the GCHQ to this day.
In 1948, the treaty was extended to include Canada, followed by Norway (1952), Denmark (1954), West Germany (1955), Australia (1956), and New Zealand (1956). These countries participated in the alliance as "third parties". By 1955, the formal status of the remaining Five Eyes countries was officially acknowledged in a newer version of the UKUSA Agreement that contained the following statement:
At this time only Canada, Australia and New Zealand will be regarded as UKUSA-collaborating Commonwealth countries. The "Five Eyes" term has its origins as a shorthand for a "AUS/CAN/NZ/UK/US EYES ONLY" (AUSCANNZUKUS) classification level.
Cold War (1950s–1990s) Edit
During the Cold War, the GCHQ and the NSA shared intelligence on the Soviet Union, the People's Republic of China, and several eastern European countries (known as Exotics). Over the course of several decades, the ECHELON surveillance network was developed to monitor the military and diplomatic communications of the Soviet Union and its Eastern Bloc allies.
During the Vietnam War, Australian and New Zealand operators in the Asia-Pacific region worked directly to support the United States, while GCHQ operators stationed in the (then) British colony of Hong Kong were tasked with monitoring North Vietnamese air defence networks. During the Falklands War, the British received intelligence data from its FVEY allies such as Australia, as well as from third parties such as Norway and France. In the aftermath of the Gulf War, a technician of the ASIS was used by SIS to bug Kuwaiti government offices.
In the 1950s, SIS and the CIA jointly orchestrated the overthrow of Iran's Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh. In the 1960s, SIS and the CIA jointly orchestrated the assassination of the Congolese independence leader Patrice Lumumba. The network was expanded in the 1960s into the Echelon collection and analysis network. In the 1970s, the ASIS and the CIA jointly orchestrated the overthrow of Chile's President Salvador Allende. During the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, SIS and the CIA took part in Operation Yellowbird to rescue dissidents from the Chinese regime.
ECHELON network disclosures (1988–2000)Edit
By the end of the 20th century, the ECHELON surveillance network had evolved into a global system capable of sweeping up massive amounts of private and commercial communications, including telephone calls, fax, e-mail and other data traffic. This was done through the interception of communication bearers such as satellite transmission and public switched telephone networks. The United Kingdom-United States of America Agreement (UKUSA) defines intelligence as
- Collection of traffic.
- Acquisition of communications documents and equipment.
- Traffic analysis.
- Decryption and translation.
- Acquisition of information regarding communications organizations, procedures, practices and equipment.
The Five Eyes has two types of information collection methods: the PRISM program and the Upstream collection system. The PRISM program gathers user information from technology firms such as Google, Apple and Microsoft, while the Upstream system gathers information directly from the communications of civilians via fiber cables and infrastructure as data flows past. In 1988, Duncan Campbell revealed in the New Statesman the existence of ECHELON, an extension of the UKUSA Agreement on global signals intelligence Sigint. The story, 'Somebody's listening,' detailed how the eavesdropping operations were not only being employed in the interests of 'national security,' but were regularly abused for corporate espionage in the service of US business interests. The piece passed largely unnoticed outside of journalism circles. In 1996, a detailed description of ECHELON was provided by New Zealand journalist Nicky Hager in a book titled "Secret Power – New Zealand's Role in the International Spy Network", which was cited by the European Parliament in a 1998 report titled "An Appraisal of the Technology of Political Control" (PE 168.184). On 16 March 2000, the Parliament called for a resolution on the Five Eyes and their ECHELON surveillance network, which, if passed, would have called for the "complete dismantling of ECHELON".
Three months later, the Temporary Committee on ECHELON was set up by the European Parliament to investigate the ECHELON surveillance network. However, according to a number of European politicians such as Esko Seppänen of Finland, these investigations were hindered by the European Commission.
In the United States, congressional legislators warned that the ECHELON system could be used to monitor US citizens. On 14 May 2001, the US government cancelled all meetings with the Temporary Committee on ECHELON.
According to a BBC report in May 2001, "the US Government still refuses to admit that Echelon even exists".
War on Terror (2001–present)Edit
In the aftermath of the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, the surveillance capabilities of the Five Eyes were greatly increased as part of the global War on Terror.
During the run-up to the Iraq War, the communications of UN weapons inspector Hans Blix were monitored by the Five Eyes. The office of UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan was bugged by British agents. An NSA memo detailed plans of the Five Eyes to boost eavesdropping on UN delegations of six countries as part of a "dirty tricks" campaign to apply pressure on these six countries to vote in favour of using force against Iraq.
SIS and the CIA forged a surveillance partnership with Libya's ruler Muammar Gaddafi to spy on Libyan dissidents in the West, in exchange for permission to use Libya as a base for extraordinary renditions.
As of 2010, the Five Eyes also have access to SIPRNet, the US government's classified version of the Internet.
Dutch intelligence services AIVD and MIVD were unusually active in 2013.
The 1973 Murphy raids on the headquarters of the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation (ASIO) revealed the existence of the UKUSA Agreement, which Prime Minister Gough Whitlam thought was no longer in force and that discovered that Pine Gap secret surveillance station, near to Alice Springs, Australia, was run by operated by the US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) without Aussie government consent.
The existence of several intelligence agencies of the Five Eyes was not revealed until the following years:
- 1970s: In Canada, an investigative television report revealed the existence of the Communications Security Establishment Canada (CSEC).
- 1975: In the United States, the Church Committee of the Senate revealed the existence of the National Security Agency (NSA).
- 1976: In Britain, an investigative article in Time Out magazine revealed the existence of the Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ).
- 1977: In Australia, the Hope Commission revealed the existence of Australian Secret Intelligence Service (ASIS) and the Defence Signals Directorate (DSD).
- 1980: In New Zealand, the existence of the Government Communications Security Bureau (GCSB) was officially disclosed on a "limited basis".
In 1999, the Australian government acknowledged that it "does co-operate with counterpart signals intelligence organisations overseas under the UKUSA relationship.".
In 2013, documents leaked by the former NSA contractor Edward Snowden revealed the existence of numerous surveillance programs jointly operated by the Five Eyes. The following list includes several notable examples reported in the media:
- PRISM – Operated by the NSA together with the GCHQ and the ASD
- XKeyscore – Operated by the NSA with contributions from the ASD and the GCSB
- Tempora – Operated by the GCHQ with contributions from the NSA
- MUSCULAR – Operated by the GCHQ and the NSA
- STATEROOM – Operated by the ASD, CIA, CSE, GCHQ, and NSA
- In March 2014, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) ordered Australia to stop spying on East Timor. This marks the first time that such restrictions are imposed on a member of the FVEY.
STONEGHOST intelligence networkEdit
Much of the sharing of information is performed via the ultra-sensitive STONEGHOST or "Stone Ghost" network. It contains:
- United States,
- United Kingdom,
- New Zealand (?).
The ECHELON surveillance networkEdit
ECHELON, originally a secret government code name, is a surveillance program (signals intelligence/SIGINT collection and analysis network) operated by the US with the aid of other four signatory nations to the UKUSA Security Agreement—Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States, also known as the Five Eyes.
The ECHELON program was created in the late 1960s to monitor the military and diplomatic communications of the Soviet Union and its Eastern Bloc allies during the Cold War, and was formally established in 1971.
By the end of the 20th century, the system referred to as "ECHELON" had allegedly evolved beyond its military and diplomatic origins, to also become "…a global system for the interception of private and commercial communications."
ECHELON is controlled by the NSA and is operated in conjunction with,
- the Government Communications Head Quarters (GCHQ) of England
- the Communications Security Establishment (CSE) of Canada
- the Australian Defense Security Directorate (DSD)
- the General Communications Security Bureau (GCSB) of New Zealand
It has 2 co-operating departments-
- TRANSIENT: for intercepting Soviet satellite transmissions, and
- ECHELON: for intercepting Intelsat satellite transmissions.
One of the radomes at GCSB Waihopai collapsed after the 2008 Ploughshares attack.
In 2013, Canadian federal judge Richard Mosley strongly rebuked the Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS) for outsourcing its surveillance of Canadians to overseas partner agencies.
MI5 asked the NSA to mass tap UK phone calls in 2013.
2013 NSA lead American spying scandal, et al was a major spy scandal that shook most of the world's nations to the core.
Spain had on the October 31, 2013 revealed that Portugal is just below Britain, Canada, Italy, Spain, Japan, South Korea, Australia and New Zealand in Washington’s circle of trust focused on the sharing of citizens’ data on a bilateral level. It covered 60 million Spanish phone calls.
- Charlie Chaplin
- Strom Thurmond
- Nelson Mandela
- Jane Fonda
- Ali Khamenei
- John Lennon
- Ehud Olmert
- Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono
- Angela Merkel
- Diana, Princess of Wales
- Kim Dotcom
- Al Jazeera
- Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication
- Visa Inc.
- Thales Group
- Total S.A.
- United Nations General Assembly
- United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research
- United Nations Children's Fund
- United Nations Development Programme
- International Atomic Energy Agency
- Tsinghua University
- The Racah Institute of Physics at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem
- RAF Croughton
- GCSB Waihopai
- Misawa Air Base
- RAF Menwith Hill
- UKUSA Security Agreement
- Pine Gap secret surveillance station
- North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
- Global cyber-warfare incident records index
- How to save your PC during Cyber-war\E-warfare
https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2011/nov/13/undercover-policeman-admits-spying-danish-activists https://sputniknews.com/europe/201706161054685284-denmark-dictatorships-spying/ https://theintercept.com/2015/11/03/europe-still-angry-at-u-s-spying-prepares-to-increase-its-own/