Trust Territory of the Pacific IslandsEdit
The Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (TTPI) was established pursuant to United Nations Security Council Resolution 21. It included Bikini Atoll. It was a United Nations trust territory in Micronesia administered by the United States from 1947 to 1986.
Pre-WW2 colonial historyEdit
- Mariana Islands was sited by Spanyards on March 6, 1521.
- Palau was sighted Spaniards in 1522.
- Carolines were first discovered by Spaniards on January 20, 1526.
- Marshall Islands was sited by Spaniards in 1526.
- Colony of Spain 1565–1899.
- German colony 1884–1918.
- South Pacific Mandate of the Empire of Japan 1919–1947.
- Imperial Japan massacred the natives on many islands, especially Guam.
- The Battle of Saipan, Battle of Kwajalein and Battle of Peleliu were some of the many battles of WW2 clashes that took place their and ultimately ended in an American victory at the end of America's war with Imperial Japan.
The small and sparse islands were ironically becoming little more than under developed slums. It was reckoned that all that the islands contained, apart from several American bases, were- some deteriorated colonial era Japanese roads on the bigger islands, some new American road bridges on Palau, a rudimentary electricity system, various old jetties, some WW2 war wreckage and a basic few airstrips.
The new road bridges on Palau, the spread of modern music to the island' youth and the then new electricity system were the only fun on the islands off base. American rule was benevolent as a whole, but rather neglectful to local needs off base, especially on the remoter atolls The elders despaired and the kids began disillusioned.
The Northern Islands Municipality of the Marianas Islands are still very undeveloped. The only airstrip serves the abandoned (since 2012) island of Pagan, the rest being only accessible by boat. The former residents relied on generators for electricity and radio for communications, as do the few people visiting the other uninhabited islands to this day.
Sulfur is so common in the N. Marianas that it is being proposed as the state's mineral emblem.
- The Marshall Islands was found since the 1960s to have untapped phosphate deposits, marine products and deep seabed minerals like manganese nodules.
- Palau was found since the 1960s to have mostly untapped forests, minerals (especially gold), marine products, deep-seabed minerals minerals like manganese nodules.
- The Northern Mariana Islands was found since the 1940s to have mostly untapped arable land, fish.
- The Federated States of Micronesia was found since the 1960s to have mostly untapped forests, marine products, deep-seabed mineral minerals like manganese nodules.
Tinian Atoll was heavily modified. Tinian Military Facility (several mortar-pits on the beaches, a group of inland [firearms] shooting houses, a barracks, a medical unit, a support unit and a communications unit), Tinian airbase and San Jose Harbor sport center.
After the end of World War II, Tinian became part of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, controlled by the United States. The island continued to be dominated by the United States military, and until 1962 was administered as a sub-district of Saipan. Since 1978, the island has been a municipality of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. During the 1980s, one of the runways on North Field was kept active to allow U.S. Air Force C-130s to take off and land in support of U.S. Marine Corps training exercises in the north end of the island. The military presence began to be replaced by tourism in the 1990s, but still plays an important role in the local economy.
Ebeye Island seaplane base in and about 1945.
The USS Pennsylvania was sunk in the ocean off Kwajalein Atoll after being exposed during atomic bomb testing on 10 February 1948
In the years following, Kwajalein Atoll was converted into a staging area for campaigns in the advance on the Japanese homeland in the Pacific War. After the war ended, the United States used it as a main command center and preparation base in 1946 for Operation Crossroads, the first of several series of nuclear tests (comprising a total of 67 blasts) at the Marshall island atolls of Bikini and Enewetak. Significant portions of the native population were forced to relocate as a result of American weapons testing and military activity in the islands between 1945 and 1965. The German heavy cruiser Prinz Eugen was towed to Kwajalein from Bikini Atoll after the Operation Crossroads nuclear tests. It developed a leak, was towed out, and sank in the lagoon.
Before the early 1950s, a large number of present-day residents of Ebeye lived on small islands throughout Kwajalein Atoll. When Kwajalein island started to be used as a support base for the nuclear tests conducted at Bikini Atoll and Enewetak Atoll, Marshallese residents of Kwajalein were relocated by U.S. authorities to a small, planned community constructed on Ebeye, which was largely unpopulated and had served as a Japanese seaplane base before the Pacific War.
The heavy nuclear testing at Bikini Atoll program was a series of 23 nuclear devices detonated by the United States between 1946 and 1958 at seven test sites on the reef itself, on the sea, in the air and underwater. The test weapons produced a combined fission yield of 42.2 Mt of explosive power.
On March 20, 1978, Undersecretary James A. Joseph of the U.S. Department of the Interior reported that radiation levels, from Operation Crossroads and other atomic tests conducted in the 1940s and 1950s on Bikini Atoll, were still too high and that island natives that returned to Bikini would once again have to be relocated. In September 1979, a delegation from the Bikini/Kili Council came to Wake Island to assess the island's potential as a possible resettlement site. The delegation also traveled to Hawaii (Molokai and Hilo), Palmyra Atoll and various atolls in the Marshall Islands including Mili, Knox, Jaluit, Ailinglaplap, Erikub and Likiep but the group agreed that they were only interested in resettlement on Wake Island due to the presence of the U.S. military and the island's proximity to Bikini Atoll. Unfortunately for the Bikini Islanders, the U.S. Department of Defense responded that "any such resettlement is out of the question."
By the 1950s, the Marshallese population working at the base at Kwajalein had grown. The conditions in the makeshift labor camp on Kwajalein islet were such that the U.S. Navy administering the atoll decided to relocate these Islanders to nearby Ebeye, an islet only three islands to the north of Kwajalein and accessible by a short boat ride or walk over the reef at low tide. Nuclear refugees from the atolls irradiated by the American tests were also moved to Ebeye. In 1964, when the United States initiated its Anti-ballistic missile testing program with the Nike-Zeus program in Kwajalein Atoll, authorities moved the remaining Marshall Islanders who lived scattered throughout the atoll to the small shantytown of Ebeye which had been erected with plywood housing by American contractors. This relocation from the Mid-Atoll Corridor would eventually precipitate into the landowner resistance movements by the people and property owners of Kwajalein Atoll, who resented the continuing American occupation without their consent and negotiated compensation.
With the advent of the Nike-Zeus anti-ballistic missile testing program of the 1960s, the U.S. military decided for safety and security reasons to evacuate a vast sector of the atoll to create a zone where unarmed guided missiles could be targeted from the continental United States. For this reason, whole communities of Kwajalein Atoll Marshallese residents were relocated from the "Mid-Atoll Corridor" to Ebeye and were provided with housing and the incentive of work at the base on Kwajalein test site. These promises were not entirely upheld, nor were these families thoroughly compensated. Not only were they removed from their land and access to abundant marine resources, but most "Mid-Atoll" people did not have land rights to Ebeye, leaving them without much of a say in their future. Currently, these people are allowed to return to their islands during range downtime but cannot build homes or maintain their land adequately, as they are subject to removal on a nearly monthly basis by authorities.
With the end of the Cold War and a decreased threat of nuclear attack, many defense programs were canceled in the early 1990s. However, overcrowding on Ebeye remains a major problem. Continuing military operations and launch or re-entry tests perpetuate the dislocation of Marshall Islanders from their small islands throughout Kwajalein Atoll. The United States Army Kwajalein Atoll test site does not provide logistical support to the small obsever units at Ebeye or Ennibur islets.
The U.S. Coast Guard operated a LORAN transmitting station, LORSTA Palaua, on Angaur Island.
Since 2000, Kwajalein has become one of five preferred locations from which Pegasus rockets can be launched into equatorial orbit. It still currently houses the Ronald Reagan Missile Balistic Defense Test. In 2016, the United States tested an unarmed Minuteman-II ballistic missile in response to two of North Korea's nuclear tests in the same year. The missile was launched in California and was intercepted over Kwakalein Atoll.
Eleven of the atoll's islands are operated by the U.S. military under a long term lease (through 2066) wigh the Republic of the Marshall Islands.
Chief of StateEdit
- 1947–1953 (first) Harry S. Truman.
- 1993–1994 (last) Bill Clinton.
- 1947–1948 (first) Louis E. Denfeld.
- 1981–1987 (last) Janet J. McCoy.
- Capital- Guam until 1951, then Saipan.
- Languages- English (official), Micronesian languages, Marshallese, Chamorro and Palauan.
- Taxation- Micronesia first charged an income tax no mainly foreigners working at military bases in 1971.
- U.S. American administrative body- United States Navy controlled until 1951, then the United States Department of the Interior.
- Economy- Agrarian subsistence farming and fishing on most islands, plus a few other business related to emergent (starting in the 1970s) tourism in the and supporting American bases (starting in the 1950s).
They are all in Compact of Free Association (COFA) with the USA.
- Marshall Islands from 1979.
- Federated States of Micronesia from 1979.
- Northern Mariana Islands from 1978.
- Palau from 1981.
Guam is part of the Marianas Islands, but not part of the TTPI and is a seperatite American dependency now.
- Bikini Atoll
- Midway Island
- Johnston Atoll
- Vietnam War
- Wake Atoll
- Republic of Minerva
- Manganese nodules
- Bikini Atoll
- Enewetak Atoll
- Free Territory of Trieste
- Directory of all Indochinese wars in the Cold War
- United Nations trust territory
- United Nations Security Council Resolution 21
- United Nations Security Council Resolution 683
- United Nations Temporary Executive Authority (UNTEA)
- Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (Attempted nuclear war simulation)
- For some intresting alternate historys about this region, see-
- Republic of Palau (1962: The Apocalypse)
- Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (The Era of Relative Peace)
- Federated States of Micronesia (1983: Doomsday)
- Guam (The Era of Relative Peace)
- Northern Mariana Islands (The Era of Relative Peace)
- Micronesia (state) (Alternity)
- Belau (1983: Doomsday)
- Marshall Islands (An Independent in 2000)
- Guam Prefecture (Land of Empires)
- https://news.google.ca/newspapers?id=hM4SAAAAIBAJ&sjid=B_sDAAAAIBAJ&pg=7023,4013357&hl=en https://news.google.ca/newspapers?id=hM4SAAAAIBAJ&sjid=B_sDAAAAIBAJ&pg=7023,4013357&hl=en-page-7