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Twin Towers from Empire State Building

Twin Towers at night seen from the Empire State Building in May 2001.

Twin Towers-NYC

The World Financial Center and Battery Park City, next to the World Trade Center, were built on artificially reclaimed land that used to be the shoreline.

WTC-looking north

The World Trade Center from the then newly completed West Side Highway in July 2001.

Birth of the Twin Towers (World Trade Center) 1966-1973

Birth of the Twin Towers (World Trade Center) 1966-1973

The birth of the Twin Towers (World Trade Center) 1966-1973.

Building the World Trade Center Towers

Building the World Trade Center Towers

The construction of the World Trade Center was conceived as an urban renewal project, spearheaded by David Rockefeller, to help revitalize Lower Manhattan.

Twin Towers - Before One World Trade Center

Twin Towers - Before One World Trade Center

Before the One World Trade Center spire dominated the New York City skyline there were the Twin Towers. Every part of the city was a showcase for the towers. Osama bin Laden knew the importance of the towers and how they stood as a symbol of American success and prosperity. September 11, 2001 they became a target. Thousands died when the buildings collapsed. The new spire stands at 1776 feet as a statement of American resolve.

September 11 2001 Video

September 11 2001 Video.

A September 11th, 2001, tribute and a watch of what happens that horrible morning near World Trade Center buildings. Victims and relatives must have Peace and Justice. Never Forget!

September 11, 2001; New Zealand's TV3 6 O'clock news

September 11, 2001; New Zealand's TV3 6 O'clock news

First ten minutes of the 6 O'clock news of September 11th 2001 - recorded on TV3 news in New Zealand (12th of September, New Zealand time).

Manhattan's Evolving Skyline

Manhattan's Evolving Skyline

The skyline of Manhattan grew drastically and rapidly through the early 20th Century. Even today, the iconic architecture is reinventing itself before our very eyes.

Over view

The World Trade Center was a large complex of seven buildings in Lower Manhattan, Manhattan IslandNew York City, United States. It's main buildings were a major twin tower office block unit, which was like the other buildings, owned by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. The twin towers were erected in 1973 in Manhattan's financial district. It was a key fixture of the district for 37 years until it was destroyed by the terrorist attacks of 9\11. It featured landmark twin towers, which opened on April 4, 1973, and were destroyed in the September 11 attacks, with 7 World Trade Center collapsing later that day due to the damage it suffered when the twin towers collapsed that morning. The other buildings in the complex were severely damaged by the collapse of the twin towers, and their ruins were eventually demolished.

At the time of their completion, the "Twin Towers" — the original 1 World Trade Center, at 1,368 feet (417 m); and 2 World Trade Center, at 1,362 feet (415 m) — were the tallest buildings in the world. The other buildings in the complex included the Marriott World Trade Center (3 WTC), 4 WTC, 5 WTC, 6 WTC, and 7 WTC. All these buildings were built between 1975 and 1985, with a construction cost of $400 million ($2,300,000,000 in 2014 dollars). The complex was located in New York City's Financial District and contained 13,400,000 square feet (1,240,000 m2) of office space.

The World Trade Center experienced a fire on February 13, 1975, a bombing on February 26, 1993, and a robbery on January 14, 1998. In 1998, the Port Authority decided to privatize the World Trade Center, leasing the buildings to a private company to manage, and awarded the lease to Silverstein Properties in July 2001.

On the morning of September 11, 2001, fanatical Al-Qaeda affiliated hijackers flew two Boeing 767 jets into the complex, beginning with the North Tower at 8:46 a.m., then the South Tower at 9:03 a.m., in a coordinated act of terrorisum. After burning for 56 minutes, the South Tower collapsed at 9:59 a.m. 29 minutes later, at 10:28 a.m. (102 minutes after being struck by the plane), the North Tower collapsed. The attacks on the World Trade Center killed 2,606 people in and within the vicinity of the towers, as well as all 157 on board the two aircraft.

Falling debris from the towers, combined with fires that the debris initiated in several surrounding buildings, led to the partial or complete collapse of all the other buildings in the complex and caused catastrophic damage to ten other large structures in the surrounding area, including the World Financial Center and Deutsche Bank Building; three buildings in the World Trade Center complex collapsed due to fire-induced structural failure, and when the North Tower collapsed, debris fell on the nearby 7 WTC, damaging it and starting fires so that it eventually collapsed. The process of cleaning up and recovery at the World Trade Center site took eight months.

The World Trade Center complex was rebuilt over a span of more than a decade. The site is being rebuilt with six new skyscrapers, while a memorial to those killed in the attacks and a new rapid transit hub have both opened. One World Trade Center, the tallest building in the United States, is the lead building for the defiant new complex, reaching more than 100 stories upon its completion in November 2014.

Stats

World Trade Center, New York City - aerial view (March 2001)

The completed World Trade Center in March 2001.

  • Name = World Trade Centre.
  • Location = Lower Manhattan, New York City .
  • Status = Destroyed by terrorists on 9\11\2001 and replaced by the One World Trade Center in 2014.  
  • Planned out= First though up in 1942. Officaly planned out between 1947 and 1966 (various plans). 
  • Groundbreaking = 1966 (Tower 1). 
  • Atart_date = 1968 (Tower 1) and 1969 (Tower 2). 7 WTC: 1983
  • Completion_date = 1971 (Tower 1) and 1973 (Tower 2). 7 WTC: May 1987.
  • Opening =  1973 (both Towers 1 and 2).
  • Rnovation_date = 1979, 1983, 1993-1994 and 1999.  
  • Building_type = Twin towered office block, with 4 surrounding office blocks, a plaza, a fire station, a PATH subway station, a low rise Marriott hotel block and few other smaller building of variose functions and usages.
  • Architectural_style= Modernist.
  • Antenna_spire = A 360-foot (110 m) tall communications mast on 1 WTC , but no other noteworthy communications masts on the other buildings.
  • Roof level height =  1 WTC: 1,368 feet (417 m), 2 WTC: 1,362 feet (415 m) and 7 WTC: 610 feet (190 m)
  • Top floor altitude- 1 WTC and 2 WTC: 1,350 feet (410 m).
  • Floor_count =  110 in 1 and 2 WTC. 7 WTC: 47 floors.
  • Lift\elevator_count = 1 and 2 WTC: 99 each.
  • Unit cost =  N\A.
  • Floor_area =  1 and 2 WTC: 4,300,000 sq ft (400,000 m2) each and 7 WTC: 1,868,000 sq ft (170,000 m2).
  • Architect =  Minoru Yamasaki and Emery Roth & Sons.
  • Structural_engineer=Worthington, Skilling, Helle & Jackson and Leslie E. Robertson Associates.
  • Main_contractor = N\A.
  • Developer = N\A.
  • Owner = Port Authority of New York and New Jersey.
  • Facility management = Port Authority of New York and New Jersey until 2001, then Vornado
  • Ultimate completion date = 1999.
  • Demolished= Mostly destroyed in 2001, by terrorists.

The topping out ceremony of 1 WTC (North Tower) took place on, December 23, 1970, while 2 WTC's ceremony (South Tower) occurred later on July 19, 1971.

The whole complex of buildings accommodated 50,000 workers and 200,000 daily visitors in 10 million square feet of space. The unit cost was $400 million ($2,300,000,000 in 2014 dollars) for the whole centre.

For individual building stats, see:

Wtc7 from wtc observation deck

The original 7 World Trade Center from the WTC observation deck, August 14, 1992, 6 months before the underground bombing of the World Trade Center.

  1. WTC 2 South Tower
  2. WTC 1 North Tower
  3. 7 World Trade Center
  4. St. Nicholas Greek Orthodox Church
  5. Marriott Hotel  3 WTC
  6. South Plaza  4 WTC
  7. U.S. Customs 6 WTC
  8. FDNY 10 Firehouse
  9. The Deutsche Bank Building on 130 Liberty Street (5 WTC
  10. World Trade Center station (PATH)
  11. Borough of Manhattan Community College's Fiterman Hall
  12. 90 West Street
  13. The Salomon Brothers Building
  14. The Verizon Building (140 West Street)
  15. The Verizon Building (375 Pearl Street)
  16. World Financial Center buildings
  17. One Liberty Plaza
  18. Millenium Hilton
  19. 90 Church Street
  20. The Mall at the World Trade Center
  21. West St/Vesey St. bus stop and shelter
  22. World Trade Center (1973–2001), a ledger of building statistics

Background

Local Geology

The western portion of the World Trade Center site was originally under the Hudson River, with the shoreline in the vicinity of Greenwich Street. It was on this shoreline close to the intersection of Greenwich and the former Dey Street that Dutch explorer Adriaen Block's ship, the Tyger, burned to the waterline in November 1613, stranding Block and his crew and forcing them to overwinter on the island. They built the first European settlement in Manhattan. The remains of the ship were buried under landfill when the shoreline was extended starting in 1797, and were discovered during excavation work in 1916. The remains of a second ship from the eighteenth century were discovered in 2010 during excavation work at the site. The ship, believed to be a Hudson River sloop, was found just south of where the Twin Towers used to stand, about 20 feet below the surface. The old shore line of the southn half of the island was finaly replaced by the crurrent one by the 1920s.

Before the World Trade Center

Radio Row-Berenice Abbott

The Radio Row in 1936, with the Cortlandt Street (IRT Ninth Avenue Line) station in the background, as seen in a photograph by Berenice Abbott.

Later, the area became Radio Row. New York City's Radio Row, which existed from 1921 to 1966, was a warehouse district on the Lower West Side in the Financial District. Harry Schneck opened City Radio on Cortlandt Street in 1921, and eventually the area held several blocks of electronics stores, with Cortlandt Street as its central axis. The used radios, war surplus electronics (e.g., ARC-5 radios), junk, and parts often piled so high they would spill out onto the street, attracting collectors and scroungers. According to a business writer, it also was the origin of the electronic component distribution business.

The idea of establishing a World Trade Center in New York City was first proposed in 1943. The New York State Legislature passed a bill authorizing New York Governor Thomas E. Dewey to begin developing plans for the project but the plans were put on hold in 1949. During the late 1940s and 1950s, economic growth in New York City was concentrated in Midtown Manhattan. To help stimulate urban renewal in Lower Manhattan, David Rockefeller suggested that the Port Authority build a World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan.

Plans for the use of eminent domain to remove the shops in Radio Row bounded by Vesey, Church, Liberty, and West Streets began in 1961 when the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey was deciding to build the world's first world trade center. They had two choices: the east side of Lower Manhattan, near the South Street Seaport; and the west side, near the H&M station, Hudson Terminal. Initial plans, made public in 1961, identified a site along the East River for the World Trade Center. As a bi-state agency, the Port Authority required approval for new projects from the governors of both New York and New Jersey. New Jersey Governor Robert B. Meyner objected to New York getting a $335 million project. Toward the end of 1961, negotiations with outgoing New Jersey Governor Meyner reached a stalemate.

At the time, ridership on New Jersey's Hudson and Manhattan Railroad (H&M) had declined substantially from a high of 113 million riders in 1927 to 26 million in 1958 after new automobile tunnels and bridges had opened across the Hudson River. In a December 1961 meeting between Port Authority director Austin J. Tobin and newly elected New Jersey Governor Richard J. Hughes, the Port Authority offered to take over the Hudson & Manhattan Railroad to have it become the Port Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH). The Port Authority also decided to move the World Trade Center project to the Hudson Terminal building site on the west side of Lower Manhattan, a more convenient location for New Jersey commuters arriving via PATH. With the new location and Port Authority acquisition of the H&M Railroad, New Jersey agreed to support the World Trade Center project. In compensation for Radio Row business owners' displacement, the PANYNJ gave each business $3,000 each, without regard to how long the business had been there or how prosperous the business was. After the area had been purchased for the World Trade Center in March 1964, Radio Row was demolished starting in March 1965. It was completely demolished by 1966.

Approval was also needed from New York City Mayor John Lindsay and the New York City Council. Disagreements with the city centered on tax issues. On August 3, 1966, an agreement was reached that the Port Authority would make annual payments to the City in lieu of taxes for the portion of the World Trade Center leased to private tenants. In subsequent years, the payments would rise as the real estate tax rate increased.

Offical site planning

Planning permissions given

In 1942, Austin J. Tobin became the Executive Director of the Port Authority, beginning a 30-year career during which he oversaw the planning and development of the World Trade Center. The concept of establishing a "world trade center" was conceived during the post–World War II period, when the United States thrived economically and international trade was increasing. In 1946, the New York State Legislature passed a bill that called for a "world trade center" to be established. The World Trade Corporation was founded, and a board was appointed by New York Governor Thomas E. Dewey to develop plans for the project. Architect John Eberson and his son Drew devised a plan that included 21 buildings over a ten-block area, at an estimated cost of $150 million. In 1949, the World Trade Corporation was dissolved by the New York State Legislature, and plans for a "world trade center" were put on hold.

Original building plans and location

In the beginning

During the post-war period, economic growth was concentrated in Midtown Manhattan, in part stimulated by the Rockefeller Center, which was developed in the 1930s. Meanwhile, Lower Manhattan was left out of the economic boom. One exception was the construction of One Chase Manhattan Plaza in the Financial District by David Rockefeller, who led urban renewal efforts in Lower Manhattan. In 1958, Rockefeller established the Downtown-Lower Manhattan Association (DLMA), which commissioned Skidmore, Owings and Merrill to draw up plans for revitalizing Lower Manhattan. The plans, made public in late June 1960, called for a World Trade Center to be built on a 13-acre (53,000 m2) site along the East River, from Old Slip to Fulton Street and between Water Street and South Street. The complex would include a 900-foot (275 m) long exhibition hall, and a 50–70 story building, with some of its upper floors used as a hotel. Other amenities would include a theater, shops, and restaurants. The plan also called for a new securities exchange building, which the Downtown-Lower Manhattan Association hoped would house the New York Stock Exchange. 

David Rockefeller suggested that the Port Authority would be a logical choice for taking on the project, and argued that the Trade Center would provide great benefits in facilitating and increasing volume of international commerce coming through the Port of New York. Given the importance of New York City in global commerce, Port Authority director Austin J. Tobin remarked that the proposed project should be the World Trade Center, and not just a "world trade center." After a year-long review of the proposal, the Port Authority formally backed the project on March 11, 1961.

The agreement

Wtc locator map

Location of World Trade Center (in red) and originally proposed site (in orange).

Location of World Trade Center (in red) and originally proposed site (in orange) The States of New York and New Jersey also needed to approve the project, given their control and oversight role of the Port Authority. Objections to the plan came from New Jersey Governor Robert B. Meyner, who resented that New York would be getting this $335 million project. Meanwhile, ridership on New Jersey's Hudson and Manhattan Railroad (H&M) had declined substantially from a high of 113 million riders in 1927 to 26 million in 1958, after new automobile tunnels and bridges opened across the Hudson River. Toward the end of 1961, negotiations with outgoing New Jersey Governor Meyner regarding the World Trade Center project reached a stalemate. In December 1961, Tobin met with newly elected New Jersey Governor Richard J. Hughes, and made a proposal to shift the World Trade Center project to a west side site where the Hudson Terminal was located. In acquiring the Hudson & Manhattan Railroad, the Port Authority would also acquire the Hudson Terminal and other buildings which were deemed obsolete. On January 22, 1962, the two states reached an agreement to allow the Port Authority to take over the railroad and to build the World Trade Center on Manhattan's lower west side. The shift in location for the World Trade Center to a site more convenient to New Jersey, together with Port Authority acquisition of the H&M Railroad, brought New Jersey to agreement in support of the World Trade Center project.

Architectural design and construction

Design announced

World Trade Center Building Design with Floor and Elevator Arrangement

A typical floor layout and elevator arrangement of the WTC towers.

PM NE 0429 09

A new hope in a run-down city?!

On September 20, 1962, the Port Authority announced the selection of Minoru Yamasaki as lead architect, and Emery Roth & Sons as associate architects. Originally, Yamasaki submitted to the Port Authority a concept incorporating twin towers, but with each building only 80 stories tall. Yamasaki remarked that the "obvious alternative, a group of several large buildings, would have looked like a housing project." Yamasaki's design for the World Trade Center was unveiled to the public on January 18, 1964, with an eight-foot model. The towers had a square plan, approximately 207 feet (63 m) in dimension on each side. The buildings were designed with narrow office windows, only 18 inches (45 cm) wide, which reflected on Yamasaki's fear of heights and desire to make building occupants feel secure. Yamasaki's design called for the building facades to be sheathed in aluminum-alloy. 

To meet the Port Authority's requirement to build 10 million square feet (930,000 m²) of office space, the buildings would each need to be 110 stories tall. A major limiting factor in building heights is elevators; the taller the building, the more elevators are needed to service the building, requiring more space-consuming elevator banks. Yamasaki and the engineers decided to use a new system that included sky lobbies, which are floors where people can switch from a large-capacity express elevator, which goes only to the sky lobbies, to a local elevator that goes to each floor in a section (the local elevators can be stacked within the same elevator shaft). Located on the 44th and 78th floors of each tower, the sky lobbies enabled the elevators to be used efficiently, while also increasing the amount of usable space on each floor from 62 to 75 percent by reducing the number of required elevator shafts. The World Trade Center towers were the second supertall buildings to use sky lobbies, after the John Hancock Center in Chicago. This system was inspired by the New York City Subway system, whose lines include local stations where local trains stop and express stations where all trains stop.

Architecture used

Designer's planning philosophy

World Trade Center Building Design with Floor and Elevator Arrangement

A typical floor layout and elevator arrangement of the WTC towers.

The plans and technology used

Structural design

As an interstate agency, the Port Authority was not subject to local laws and regulations of the City of New York, including building codes. Nonetheless, the Port Authority required architects and structural engineers to follow the New York City building codes. At the time when the World Trade Center was planned, new building codes were being devised to replace the 1938 version that was still in place. The structural engineers ended up following draft versions of the new 1968 building codes, which incorporated "advanced techniques" in building design.

Environmental awards

The towers were praised for their wind stability factor at the time by many structural experts. The floors were connected to the perimeter spandrel plates with viscoelastic dampers that helped reduce the amount of sway felt by building occupants.

The technology used

It was cutting edge for it's time.

World, National, State and city records

Twin Towers-NYC

The World Financial Center and Battery Park City, next to the World Trade Center, were built on reclaimed coastal land.

  • Tallest building in the world (both including and exclude the communication's mast)- 1971 to 1974.
  • Tallest building in the USA (both including and exclude the communication's mast)- 1972–1974
  • Tallest building in New York State 1971 (both including and exclude the communication's mast)- 2001. 
  • Tallest building in New York City 1971 (both including and excluding the communication's mast)- 2001.
  • Fist place to be 'plane slammed', that is deliberately hit by a civil liner as a act of war or terrorism!
  • The fact that is stayed up any time after having such heavy damage as 9/11. The 1970s engineering was obviously of a good quality since they could not have foreseen 9/11 or been up to preparing for such an event with only 1970s technology, yet they made it strong enough not to instantly collapses on impact with the jets flown in to it!
  • Most 'sky lobbies'- 1971 to 1974.
  • Most elevators- 1971 to 1974.
  • Building with the most floors- 1972–2001.
  • Tallest twin towers in the world- 1972–1998.

Complex facilities

New York - World Trade Center 1999

New York - World Trade Center 1999

My memory of the amazing World Trade Center towers in New York City - having climbed to the observation deck twice, in 1997 and again in 1999 with Mum. Who would ever have guessed the terrible fate to befall these buildings and all those souls within just two short years after this video footage was taken.

World Trade Center 1999

World Trade Center 1999

In 1999 our family visited the twin towers, not knowing that two years later tragedy will strike. Life could change in a blink of an eye. Let's enjoy life like there is no tomorrow and pray for all that perished in 9/11.

The original World Trade Center was thought of as a North American cultural icon. At the time of their completion the "Twin Towers", the original 1 World Trade Center (the North Tower), at 417 metres (1,368 ft), and 2 World Trade Center (the South Tower), were the tallest buildings in the world. The other buildings in the complex included the Marriott World Trade Center (3 WTC), 4 WTC, 5 WTC, 6 WTC, and 7 WTC. All of these buildings were built between 1975 and 1985, with a construction cost of $400 million (equivalent to $2,300,000,000 in 2015 dollars). The complex was located in New York City's Financial District and contained 13,400,000 square feet (1,240,000 m2) of office space.

The World Trade Center experienced a fire on February 13, 1975, a bombing on February 26, 1993 and a robbery on January 14, 1998. In 1998, the Port Authority decided to privatize the World Trade Center, leasing the buildings to a private company to manage, and awarded the lease to Silverstein Properties in July 2001.

On a typical weekday 50,000 people worked in the towers with another 200,000 passing through as visitors. The complex was so large that it had its own zip code: 10048. The towers offered expansive views from the observation deck atop the South Tower and the Windows on the World restaurant on top of the North Tower. The Twin Towers became known worldwide, appearing in numerous movies and television shows as well as on postcards and other merchandise, and became seen as a New York icon, in the same league as the Empire State Building, Chrysler Building and the Statue of Liberty.

North and\or South Towers

World Trade Center lobby, 08-19-2000

Lobby of Tower 1, looking south along the east side of the building, August 19, 2000.

World Trade Center South Tower lobby interior

WTC South Tower Lobby interior, overlooking the elevator core and red carpet from the balcony.

One World Trade Center and Two World Trade Center, commonly the Twin Towers, the idea of which was brought up by Minoru Yamasaki, were designed as framed tube structures, which provided tenants with open floor plans, uninterrupted by columns or walls. They were the main buildings of the World Trade Center. The North Tower (One World Trade Center), the tallest building in the world at 1,368 feet (417 m) by the time of its completion, began construction in 1966 with the South Tower (2 World Trade Center); extensive use of prefabricated components helped to speed up the construction process, and the first tenants moved into the North Tower in December 1970, while it was still under construction. When completed in 1973, the South Tower, Two World Trade Center (the South Tower) became the second tallest building in the world at 1,362 feet (415 m); the South Tower's rooftop observation deck was 1,362 ft (415 m) high and its indoor observation deck was 1,310 ft (400 m) high. Each tower stood over 1,350 feet (410 m) high, and occupied about 1 acre (4,000 m2) of the total 16 acres (65,000 m2) of the site's land. During a press conference in 1973, Yamasaki was asked, "Why two 110-story buildings? Why not one 220-story building?" His tongue-in-cheek response was: "I didn't want to lose the human scale."

WTC South Tower Lobby interior, overlooking the elevator core and red carpet from the balcony When completed in 1972, 1 World Trade Center became the tallest building in the world for two years, surpassing the Empire State Building after a 40-year reign. The North Tower stood 1,368 feet (417 m) tall and featured a telecommunications antenna or mast that was added at the top of the roof in 1978 and stood 362 feet (110 m) tall. With the 362-foot (110 m)-tall antenna/mast, the highest point of the North Tower reached 1,730 feet (530 m). The World Trade Center towers held the height record only briefly, as Chicago's Sears Tower, finished in May 1973, reached 1,450 feet (440 m) at the rooftop. Throughout their existence, the WTC towers had more floors (at 110) than any other building. This number was not surpassed until the advent of the Burj Khalifa, which opened in 2010.

Of the 110 stories in both, eight were set aside for technical services in mechanical floors (floors 7/8, 41/42, 75/76, and 108/109), which are four two-floor areas that evenly spaced up the building. All the remaining floors were free for open-plan offices. Each floor of the towers had 40,000 square feet (3,700 m2) of space for occupancy. The original Two World Trade Center had 95 express and local elevators. The tower had 3,800,000 square feet (350,000 m2) of office space.

Sky Lobbies

A sky lobby is an intermediate interchange floor where people can change from an express elevator that stops only at the sky lobby to a local elevator which stops at every floor within a segment of the building. When designing very tall (supertall) buildings, supplying enough elevators is a problem – travellers wanting to reach a specific higher floor may conceivably have to stop at a very large number of other floors on the way up to let other passengers off and on. This increases travel time, and indirectly requires many more elevator shafts to still allow acceptable travel times – thus reducing effective floor space on each floor for all levels. (The other main technique to increase usage without adding more elevator shafts is double-deck elevators.)

Early uses of the sky lobby include the original Twin Towers of the World Trade Center and the John Hancock Center in Chicago.

Windows on the World restaurant

World Financial Center from the Windows on the World restaurant

View of World Financial Center from the Windows on the World dining room.

Windows on the world restaurant interior

Windows on the World restaurant interior, November 4, 1999

Windows on the World was a complex of venues at the top floors (106th and 107th) of the One World Trade Center\Original building\North Tower\Building One of the original World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan that included a restaurant called Windows on the World, a smaller restaurant called Wild Blue, a bar called The Greatest Bar on Earth, and rooms for private functions. Developed by restaurateur Joe Baum and designed initially by Warren Platner, Windows on the World occupied 50,000 square feet (4,600 m²) of space in the North Tower. The restaurants operated from April 19, 1976, until 2001 when they were destroyed in the September 11 attacks.

The Windows on the World was a complex of venues at the top floors (106th and 107th) of the North Tower (Building One) of the original World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan that included a restaurant called Windows on the World, a smaller restaurant called Wild Blue, a bar called The Greatest Bar on Earth, and rooms for private functions. Developed by restaurateur Joe Baum and designed initially by Warren Platner, Windows on the World occupied 50,000 square feet (4,600 m²) of space in the North Tower. The restaurants operated from April 19, 1976, until 2001 when they were destroyed in the September 11 attacks.

It has been speculated that The Falling Man, a famous photograph of a man dressed in white falling headfirst on September 11, was an employee at Windows on the World, but his identity has never been conclusively established, although he was believed to be Jonathan Briley.

Top of the World observation deck

Two World Trade Center Observation Deck

Two World Trade Center's observation deck attracted enormous numbers of visitors. The Midtown Manhattan skyline can be seen in the distance.

Although most of the space in the World Trade Center complex was off-limits to the public, the South Tower featured an indoor and outdoor public observation area called Top of the World Trade Center Observatories on its 107th and 110th floors. Visitors would pass through security checks added after the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, then were sent to the 107th floor indoor observatory at a height of 1,310 feet (400 m). The columns on each face of the building were narrowed on this level to allow 28 inches of glass between them. The Port Authority renovated the observatory in 1995, then leased it to Ogden Entertainment to operate.

Attractions added to the observation deck included a simulated helicopter ride around the city. The 107th floor food court was designed with a subway car theme and featured Sbarro and Nathan's Famous Hot Dogs. Weather permitting, visitors could take two short escalator rides up from the 107th floor viewing area to an outdoor viewing platform on the 110th floor at a height of 1,377 ft (420 m). On a clear day, visitors could see up to 50 miles (80 km). An anti-suicide fence was placed on the roof itself, with the viewing platform set back and elevated above it, requiring only an ordinary railing and leaving the view unobstructed, unlike the observation deck of the Empire State Building.

In-house bank vault

One of the world's largest gold depositories was stored underneath the World Trade Center, owned by a group of commercial banks. The 1993 bombing detonated close to the vault. Seven weeks after the September 11 attacks, $230 million in precious metals was removed from basement vaults of 4 WTC, which included 3,800 100-Troy-ounce 24 carat gold bars and 30,000 1,000-ounce silver bars.

In-house police station

Due to it's size, economic activity, demographic profile, security issues and working population, it needed a small in-house NYPD police station.

The other buildings

Five smaller buildings stood around the 16 acres (65,000 m2) block. One was the 22-floor hotel, which opened in 1981 as the Vista Hotel, and in 1995 became the Marriott World Trade Center (3 WTC) at the southwest corner of the site. Three low-rise buildings (4 WTC, 5 WTC, and 6 WTC) in the same hollow tube design as the towers also stood around the plaza. 6 World Trade Center, at the northwest corner, housed the United States Customs Service and the U.S. Commodities Exchange. 5 World Trade Center was located at the northeast corner above the PATH station and 4 World Trade Center was at the southeast corner. In 1987, a 47-floor office building called 7 World Trade Center was built north of the block. Beneath the World Trade Center complex was an underground shopping mall, which in turn had connections to various mass transit facilities including the New York City Subway system and the Port Authority's own PATH trains connecting Manhattan to New Jersey.

Next door fire station

Due to it's size, economic activity, demographic profile, fire issues and working population, it needed a small in-house FDNY fire station, so they built FDNY 10 Firehouse across the road from it. The firehouse was built in 1979, but Engine Company 10 was formed back in 9/8/1865 and Ladder Company 10 was also formed 10/20/1865. They were first located in 28 Beaver Street and 28 Ann Street respectively and finally ended up in 124 Liberty street on 6/11/1980 and 7/1/1984 respectively in order to look after the World Trade Center's fire needs.

  • Engine 10 (SP13001H) - 2013 Seagrave Attacker HD (2000/500/HP)
  • Ladder 10 (FL13002) - 2013 Ferrara Ultra (-/-/100' rearmount)
  • CPC Ladder 10 (FM01167) - 2001 Ford F450/Knapheide

In-house power sub-station

Electrical service to the towers was supplied by Consolidated Edison (ConEd) at 13,800 volts. This service passed through the World Trade Center Primary Distribution Center (PDC) and sent up through the core of the building to electrical substations located on the mechanical floors. The substations stepped down the 13,800 primary voltage to 480/277 volt secondary service, and then further down to 208/120 volt general power and lighting service. The complex also was served by emergency generators located in the sub-levels of the towers and on the roof of 5 WTC.

The Mall at the World Trade Center

Westfield World Trade Center is a shopping center at the World Trade Center complex which is operated and managed by Westfield Corporation. The mall opened on August 16, 2016. It replaces an earlier shopping center called The Mall at the World Trade Center, which was located in the concourse area of the original World Trade Center until it was destroyed on September 11, 2001.

Prior to 9/11, the mall had been leased to the Westfield Group by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, the owner of the complex. Westfield intended to rename the mall "Westfield Shoppingtown World Trade Center", and embark on a major expansion and renovation program. Plans called for the addition of 200,000 square feet (19,000 m2) of new mall space and a few well-known sit-down restaurants. This renovation never happened due to its destruction.

90 West Street

90 West Street (alternatively West Street Building) is a building in Lower Manhattan, New York City designed by architect Cass Gilbert and structural engineer Gunvald Aus for the West Street Improvement Corporation. When completed in 1907, the building's Gothic styling and ornamentation served to emphasize its 23-story height, and foreshadowed Gilbert's later work on the Woolworth Building. Originally built as an office building, the main tenant was the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad and the top floor was occupied by Garret's Restaurant, which advertised itself as the "world's highest restaurant".

Located on West Street, between Cedar and Albany Streets, just south of the World Trade Center site, the building had a view to the Hudson River before Battery Park City was built on fill across West Street.

In 1998, the building's exterior was designated an architectural landmark by the city's Landmarks Preservation Commission. In 2006, it received a National Preservation Honor Award from the National Trust for Historic Preservation. Restoration of the lobby revealed some of Gilbert's original terra cotta work that had been covered over during an earlier modernization project. During this restoration, the copper roof was replaced and replacement gargoyles were added. The building was converted into apartments and reopened on March 7, 2005.

Next door and across town telephone exchang station

Due to it's size, economic activity, demographic profile, communications issues and working population, it needed a small in-house a near by outside telephone switching station so it was added to a existing on a short way down the road. It was backed up by a second one inside a new exchange built across town in 1975.

The Verizon Building – previously known as the Barclay-Vesey Building and the New York Telephone Company Building – is a 32-story building located at 140 West Street between Barclay and Vesey Streets, going through to Washington Street, in the TriBeCa neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City. The building was constructed from 1923 to 1927, and was designed in the Art Deco style by Ralph Walker of the firm McKenzie, Voorhees & Gmelin. The building is adjacent to the World Trade Center site and 7 World Trade Center, and it experienced major damage in the September 11, 2001 attacks. Its thick masonry exterior and use of masonry to protect steel columns and structural elements helped the building withstand the attacks. Restoration of the building after the attacks took three years, at a cost of $1.4 billion.

The building, which has oft been called "one of the most significant structures in skyscraper design", was the longtime corporate headquarters of Verizon Communications.

The Verizon Building (140 West Street) has five sub-basement levels, which house communications equipment. The building remained in use by Verizon as a main telecommunications switching center in Lower Manhattan, handling approximately 200,000 phone lines and 3.6 million data circuits prior to 9/11.

The building's older design utilizes thick masonry and gives the building added strength, which helped the building withstand the attacks and remain structurally sound. The building has thick, heavy masonry in the exterior infill walls, which encloses the building's steel frame. Brick, cinder, concrete and other masonry materials encase interior steel columns, beams, girders and other structural elements. The masonry allowed the structure to absorb much of the energy from debris hitting the building. Nonetheless, the building had extensive damage to its east and south facades. Underground cable vaults belonging to Verizon, along with other underground utility infrastructure were also heavily damaged from water and debris.

375 Pearl Street, also known as The Verizon Building and One Brooklyn Bridge Plaza, is a 32-story telephone switching building at the Manhattan end of the Brooklyn Bridge.

The building, which appears windowless but has several 3-foot-wide slits (0.91 m) (some with glass) running up the building, is featured in most photos of the bridge from the Brooklyn side. Verizon operations include a small DMS-100 switching system and a Switching Control Center System. The building's CLLI code, its identification in the telecommunications industry, is NYCMNYPS. As of 2016, the building is undergoing a renovation.

When it opened in 1975 for New York Telephone Company, New York Times architecture critic Paul Goldberger decried it as the “most disturbing” of the phone company’s new switching centers because it “overwhelms the Brooklyn Bridge towers, thrusts a residential neighborhood into shadow and sets a tone of utter banality.”

The Verizon Building (375 Pearl Street) could be seen from Brooklyn Bridge, and was under renovation in March 2016. The building played an important part in recovering service to the police department in the attacks of September 11, 2001.

World Trade Center station (PATH)

World Trade Center or World Trade Center station (PATH) is a terminal station in Lower Manhattan for PATH rail service. It was originally opened on July 19, 1909, as Hudson Terminal, but was torn down, rebuilt as World Trade Center, and re-opened July 6, 1971. Following the September 11, 2001 attacks, a temporary station opened in 2003.

This station serves as the terminus for the Newark – World Trade Center and Hoboken – World Trade Center routes. The main station house, the Oculus, opened on March 4, 2016, and the terminal was renamed the World Trade Center Transportation Hub, or World Trade Center for short.

In March 1965, the Port Authority began acquiring property at the World Trade Center site. Demolition work began on March 21, 1966, to clear thirteen square blocks of low rise buildings in Radio Row for construction of the World Trade Center. Groundbreaking for the construction of the World Trade Center took place on August 5, 1966. Groundbreaking on the World Trade Center took place in 1966. The site was on landfill, with bedrock located 65 metres (213 ft) below the surface. A new method was used to construct a slurry wall to keep water from the Hudson River out. During excavation of the site and construction of the towers, the original Hudson Tubes remained in service as elevated tunnels.

In January 1967, the Port Authority awarded $74 million in contracts to various steel suppliers, and Karl Koch was hired to erect the steel. Tishman Realty & Construction was hired in February 1967 to oversee construction of the project. Construction work began on the North Tower in August 1968; construction on the South Tower was underway by January 1969.

The Hudson Terminal was shut down in 1971 when a new Port Authority Trans-Hudson, or PATH Railroad station was completed. The new station cost $35 million to build. At the time, it had a passenger volume of 85,000 daily. The complex was located in New York City's Financial District and contained 13,400,000 square feet (1,240,000 m2) of office space.

The station did not sustain significant damage during the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, although a section of ceiling in the station collapsed and trapped dozens. Within a week, the Port Authority was able to resume PATH service to the World Trade Center. By 2001, the volume of passengers using the WTC PATH station was approximately 25,000 daily.

The local bus stop

There were and still are 2 near by stops at:

Also, the M5 New York City Bus route runs northbound on Church Street and southbound to South Ferry on Broadway.

Renovation

WTC-towers and hotel

The two original towers; 2 World Trade Center is in the foreground, while 1 World Trade Center is in the background.

Lease

The Port Authority accepted a $3.25 billion for the 99-year lease from Vornado in early 2001.

Diplomacy

Between 1978 and 1995, the Consulate of Paraguay was located in Suite 1609 of One World Trade Center. Home Lines once occupied Suite 3969.

ZIP code

The building's address was One World Trade Center, with the WTC complex having its own ZIP code of 10048 due to its large size and working population.

Pre-9\11 History

February 13, 1975 fire

On February 13, 1975, a three-alarm fire broke out on the 11th floor of the North Tower. Fire spread through the tower to the 9th and 14th floors by igniting the insulation of telephone cables in a utility shaft that ran vertically between floors. Areas at the furthest extent of the fire were extinguished almost immediately and the original fire was put out in a few hours. Most of the damage was concentrated on the 11th floor, fueled by cabinets filled with paper, alcohol-based fluid for office machines, and other office equipment. The fireproofing protected the steel and there was no structural damage to the tower. In addition to damage caused by the fire on the 9th - 14th floors, water from the extinguishing of the fires damaged a few floors below. At that time, the World Trade Center had no fire fire sprinkler systems.

February 26, 1993, bombing

WTC 1993 ATF Commons

Underground bombing aftermath.

The first terrorist attack on the World Trade Center occurred on February 26, 1993, at 12:17 p.m. A Ryder truck filled with 1,500 pounds (680 kg) of explosives, planted by Ramzi Yousef, detonated in the underground garage of the North Tower. The blast opened a 100 foot (30 m) hole through five sublevels with the greatest damage occurring on levels B1 and B2 and significant structural damage on level B3. Six people were killed and 1,042 others were injured during escape attempts complicated by smoke infiltration from the base of the building up to the 93rd floor of both towers. Many people inside the North Tower were forced to walk down darkened stairwells that contained no emergency lighting, some taking two hours or more to reach safety.

On February 26, 1993, the hotel Marriot was seriously damaged as a result of the World Trade Center bombing. Terrorists affiliated with al-Qaeda took a Ryder truck loaded with 1,500 pounds (682 kilograms) of explosives and parked it in the One World Trade Center parking garage, located below the hotel's ballroom. At 12:18pm (Eastern Time), the explosion destroyed or seriously damaged the lower and sub levels of the World Trade Center complex. After extensive repairs, the hotel reopened in November 1994.

Yousef fled to Pakistan after the bombing but was arrested in Islamabad in February 1995, and was extradited back to the United States to face trial. Sheikh Omar Abdel Rahman was convicted in 1996 for involvement in the bombing and other plots. Yousef and Eyad Ismoil were convicted in November 1997 for their carrying out the bombing. Four others had been convicted in May 1994 for their involvement in the 1993 bombing. According to a presiding judge, the conspirators' chief aim at the time of the attack was to destabilize the north tower and send it crashing into the south tower, toppling both landmarks.

Following the bombing, floors that were blown out needed to be repaired to restore the structural support they provided to columns. The slurry wall was in peril following the bombing and loss of the floor slabs that provided lateral support against pressure from Hudson River water on the other side. The refrigeration plant on sublevel B5, which provided air conditioning to the entire World Trade Center complex, was heavily damaged.After the bombing, the Port Authority installed photoluminescent markings in the stairwells. The fire alarm system for the entire complex needed to be replaced because critical wiring and signaling in the original system was destroyed. As a memorial to the victims of the bombing of the tower, a reflecting pool was installed with the names of those who had been killed in the blast. However, the memorial was destroyed following the September 11 attacks. Names of the victims of the 1993 bombing are included in the National September 11 Memorial & Museum.

January 14, 1998, robbery

In January 1998, Mafia member Ralph Guarino, who had gained maintenance access to the World Trade Center, arranged a three-man crew for a heist that netted over $2 million from a Brinks delivery to the eleventh floor of the World Trade Center.

Other events

  1. French high wire acrobatic performer Philippe Petit walked between the towers on a tightrope in 1974, as shown in the documentary film Man on Wire and depicted in the feature film The Walk. Petit walked between the towers eight times on a steel cable.
  2. Brooklyn toymaker George Willig scaled the exterior of the south tower in 1977.
  3. In 1983, on Memorial Day, high-rise firefighting and rescue advocate Dan Goodwin successfully climbed the outside of the WTC's North Tower. His stunt was meant to call attention to the inability to rescue people potentially trapped in the upper floors of skyscrapers.
  4. The 1995 PCA world chess championship was played on the 107th floor of the South Tower.

The 9/11 attacks

North face south tower after plane strike 9-11

The north face of Two World Trade Center (south tower) immediately after being struck by United Airlines Flight 175.

World Trade Center Site After 9-11 Attacks With Original Building Locations

World Trade Center Site After 9-11 Attacks With Original Building Locations.

Ireland's RTE News Live Coverage of September 11th 2001 Attacks

Ireland's RTE News Live Coverage of September 11th 2001 Attacks

Ireland's RTE News Live Coverage of September 11th 2001 Attacks.

Live Coverage - ABC 7 Washington (08 51am-11 18am) - September 11th 2001-0

Live Coverage - ABC 7 Washington (08 51am-11 18am) - September 11th 2001-0

Live coverage from ABC 7 Washington. 2nd plane attack, Pentagon & both collapses.

Overview

The September 11 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda on the United States on the morning of September 11, 2001. The attacks killed 2,996 people and injured over 6,000 others and caused at least $10 billion in property and infrastructure damage and $3 trillion in total costs.

Four passenger airliners operated by two major U.S. passenger air carriers (United Airlines and American Airlines)—all of which departed from airports on the northeastern United States bound for California—were hijacked by 19 al-Qaeda terrorists, losing one of their passports in the WTC area. Two of the planes, American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175, were crashed into the North and South towers, respectively, of the World Trade Center complex in New York City. Within an hour and 42 minutes, both 110-story towers collapsed, with debris and the resulting fires causing partial or complete collapse of all other buildings in the World Trade Center complex, including the 47-story 7 World Trade Center tower, as well as significant damage to ten other large surrounding structures. A third plane, American Airlines Flight 77, was crashed into the Pentagon (the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense) in Arlington County, Virginia, thus leading to a partial collapse of the building's western side. The fourth plane, United Airlines Flight 93, initially was steered toward Washington, D.C., but crashed into a field in Stonycreek Township near Shanksville, Pennsylvania, after its passengers tried to overcome the hijackers. It was the deadliest incident for firefighters and law enforcement officers in the history of the United States, with 343 and 72 killed respectively.

Suspicion for the attack quickly fell on al-Qaeda. The United States responded to the attacks by launching the War on Terror and invading Afghanistan to depose the Taliban, which had harbored al-Qaeda. Many countries strengthened their anti-terrorism legislation and expanded the powers of law enforcement and intelligence agencies to prevent terrorist attacks. Although al-Qaeda's leader, Osama bin Laden, initially denied any involvement, in 2004 he claimed responsibility for the attacks. Al-Qaeda and bin Laden cited U.S. support of Israel, the presence of U.S. troops in Saudi Arabia, and sanctions against Iraq as motives. Having evaded capture for almost a decade, bin Laden was located and killed by SEAL Team Six of the U.S. military in May 2011.

The destruction of the World Trade Center and nearby infrastructure caused serious damage to the economy of Lower Manhattan and had a significant effect on global markets, closing Wall Street until September 17 and the civilian airspace in the U.S. and Canada until September 13. Many closings, evacuations, and cancellations followed, out of respect or fear of further attacks. Cleanup of the World Trade Center site was completed in May 2002, and the Pentagon was repaired within a year. On November 18, 2006, construction of One World Trade Center began at the World Trade Center site. The building was officially opened on November 3, 2014. Numerous memorials have been constructed, including the National September 11 Memorial & Museum in New York City, the Pentagon Memorial in Arlington County, Virginia, and the Flight 93 National Memorial in a field in Stonycreek Township near Shanksville, Pennsylvania.

The attacks them selves

World Trade Center, NY - 2001-09-11 - Debris Impact Areas

Diagram showing the illegal and horrific attacks on the World Trade Center.

911 - FEMA - WTC impacts (graphic)

Map showing the attacks on the World Trade Center (the planes are not drawn to scale).

Aerial photo of WTC groundzero

Aerial photo of the World Trade Center site, as it appeared on September 23, 2001.

Early on the morning of September 11, 2001, 19 hijackers took control of four commercial airliners (two Boeing 757 and two Boeing 767) en route to California (three headed to LAX in Los Angeles, and one to SFO in San Francisco) after takeoffs from Logan International Airport in Boston, Massachusetts; Newark Liberty International Airport in Newark, New Jersey; and Washington Dulles International Airport in Loudoun and Fairfax counties in Virginia. Large planes with long flights were selected for hijacking because they would be 'heavily fueled' (carrying most of thire fule due to a recent take-off). 

The four flights were:

  1. American Airlines Flight 11: a Boeing 767 aircraft, departed Logan Airport at 7:59 a.m. en route to Los Angeles with a crew of 11 and 76 passengers, not including five hijackers. The hijackers flew the plane into the North Tower of the World Trade Center in New York City at 8:46 a.m.
  2. United Airlines Flight 175: a Boeing 767 aircraft, departed Logan Airport at 8:14 a.m. en route to Los Angeles with a crew of nine and 51 passengers, not including five hijackers. The hijackers flew the plane into the South Tower of the World Trade Center in New York City at 9:03 a.m.
  3. American Airlines Flight 77: a Boeing 757 aircraft, departed Washington Dulles International Airport at 8:20 a.m. en route to Los Angeles with a crew of six and 53 passengers, not including five hijackers. The hijackers flew the plane into the Pentagon in Arlington County, Virginia, at 9:37 a.m.
  4. United Airlines Flight 93: a Boeing 757 aircraft, departed Newark International Airport at 8:42 a.m. en route to San Francisco, with a crew of seven and 33 passengers, not including four hijackers. As passengers attempted to subdue the hijackers, the aircraft crashed into a field in Stonycreek Township near Shanksville, Pennsylvania, at 10:03 a.m.

Media coverage was extensive during the attacks and aftermath, beginning moments after the first crash into the World Trade Center.

At 8:46 a.m., five hijackers crashed American Airlines Flight 11 into the northern façade of the World Trade Center's North Tower (1 WTC), and at 9:03 a.m., another five hijackers crashed United Airlines Flight 175 into the southern façade of the South Tower (2 WTC). Five hijackers flew American Airlines Flight 77 into the Pentagon at 9:37 a.m. A fourth flight, United Airlines Flight 93, under the control of four hijackers, crashed near Shanksville, Pennsylvania, southeast of Pittsburgh, at 10:03 a.m. after the passengers fought the hijackers. Flight 93's target is believed to have been either the Capitol or the White House.

Flight 93's cockpit voice recorder revealed crew and passengers tried to seize control of the plane from the hijackers after learning through phone calls that Flights 11, 77, and 175 had been crashed into buildings that morning. Once it became evident to the ruthless hijackers that the passengers might regain control of the plane, the hijackers spitefully rolled the plane and thus intentionally crashed it.

Three buildings in the World Trade Center collapsed due to fire-induced structural failure. The South Tower collapsed at 9:59 a.m. after burning for 56 minutes in a fire caused by the impact of United Airlines Flight 175 and the explosion of its fuel. The North Tower collapsed at 10:28 a.m. after burning for 102 minutes. When the North Tower collapsed, debris fell on the nearby 7 World Trade Center building (7 WTC), damaging it and starting fires. These fires burned for hours, compromising the building's structural integrity, and 7 WTC collapsed at 5:21 p.m. The west side of the Pentagon sustained significant damage.

Many of the surrounding buildings were also either damaged or destroyed as the towers fell. 5 WTC suffered a large fire and a partial collapse of its steel structure. Other buildings destroyed include St. Nicholas Greek Orthodox Church, Marriott World Trade Center (Marriott Hotel 3 WTC), South Plaza (4 WTC), and U.S. Customs (6 WTC). The World Financial Center buildings, 90 West Street, and 130 Cedar Street suffered fires. The Deutsche Bank Building, the Verizon Building, and World Financial Center 3 suffered impact damage from the towers' collapse, as did 90 West Street. One Liberty Plaza survived structurally intact but sustained surface damage including shattered windows. 30 West Broadway was damaged by the collapse of 7 WTC. The Deutsche Bank Building, which was covered in a large black "shroud" after September 11 to cover the building's damage, was deconstructed because of water, mold, and other severe damage caused by the neighboring towers' collapse. FDNY 10 Firehouse closed for a couple of days as the roof and garage were cleared of dust, rubble, glass and other minor debris. It closed for about 1.5 years soon after when surveyors found impact related structural damage in the building that needed to be repaid. A memorial wall was added to the building when it was partly re-built.

Collapse of the World Trade Center

The Twin Towers of the World Trade Center collapsed on September 11, 2001, as a result of being struck by two jet airliners hijacked by 10 terrorists affiliated with al-Qaeda, during the September 11 attacks.  Two of the four hijacked airliners crashed into the Twin Towers, one into the North Tower (1 World Trade Center) and the other into the South Tower (2 World Trade Center). The collapse of the Twin Towers destroyed the rest of the complex, and debris from the collapsing towers severely damaged or destroyed more than a dozen other adjacent and nearby structures. The South Tower collapsed at 9:59 am, less than an hour after being hit by the second hijacked airliner, and at 10:28 am the North Tower collapsed. Later that day, 7 World Trade Centercollapsed at 5:21 pm from fires that had started when the North Tower collapsed.

As a result of the attacks to the towers, a total of 2,763 people died. Of the people who died in the towers, 2,192 were civilians, 343 were firefighters, and 71 law enforcement officers. Aboard the two airplanes, 147 civilians and 10 hijackers also died.

Immediately following the attacks, a building performance study (BPS) team of engineering specialists was formed by the Structural Engineering Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers (SEI/ASCE) and Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The BPS team issued its report in May 2002, finding that the aircraft impacts caused "extensive structural damage, including localized collapse" and that the resulting fires "further weakened the steel-framed structures, eventually leading to total collapse". They also presented recommendations for more detailed engineering studies of the disaster.

The BPS team investigation was later followed by a more detailed investigation conducted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), which also consulted outside engineering entities. This investigation was completed in September 2005. The NIST investigators did not find anything substandard in the design of the WTC towers, noting that the severity of the attacks and the magnitude of the destruction was beyond anything experienced in U.S. cities in the past. They also emphasized the role of the fires and found that sagging floors pulled inward on the perimeter columns: "This led to the inward bowing of the perimeter columns and failure of the south face of WTC 1 and the east face of WTC 2, initiating the collapse of each of the towers."

The cleanup of the site involved round-the-clock operations, many contractors and subcontractors, and cost hundreds of millions of dollars. The demolition of the surrounding damaged buildings continued even as new construction proceeded on the World Trade Center's replacement, One World Trade Center, which was structurally completed on May 10, 2013, when the final component of the spire was installed atop the skyscraper. As of 2014, One World Trade Center, 4 World Trade Center and 7 World Trade Center have been replaced.

Along with the 110-floor Twin Towers, numerous other buildings at the World Trade Center site were destroyed or badly damaged, including WTC buildings 3 through 7 and St. Nicholas Greek Orthodox Church (Manhattan, NYC). The North Tower, South Tower, the Marriott World Trade Center, and 7 WTC were completely destroyed. The U.S. Customs House (6 World Trade Center), 4 World Trade Center , 5 World Trade Center , and both pedestrian bridges connecting buildings were severely damaged. The Deutsche Bank Building on 130 Liberty Street was partially damaged and demolished some years later, starting in 2007. The two buildings of the Brookfield Place, (New York City), also suffered damage.

The Deutsche Bank Building across Liberty Street from the World Trade Center complex was later condemned as uninhabitable because of toxic conditions inside the office tower, and was Deconstruction (building)|deconstructed.The Borough of Manhattan Community College 's Fiterman Hall at 30 West Broadway was condemned due to extensive damage in the attacks, and is being rebuilt. Other neighboring buildings (including 90 West Street and the Verizon Building) suffered major damage but have been restored. Ther World Financial Center buildings, One Liberty Plaza, the Millenium Hilton, and 90 Church Street had moderate damage and have since been restored. Communications equipment on top of the North Tower was also destroyed, but media stations were quickly able to reroute the signals and resume their broadcasts.

The Verizon Building – previously known as the Barclay-Vesey Building and the New York Telephone Company Building – is a 32-story building located at 140 West Street between Barclay and Vesey Streets, going through to Washington Street, in the TriBeCa neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City. The building was constructed from 1923 to 1927, and was designed in the Art Deco style by Ralph Walker of the firm McKenzie, Voorhees & Gmelin. The building is adjacent to the World Trade Center site and 7 World Trade Center, and it experienced major damage in the September 11, 2001 attacks. Its thick masonry exterior and use of masonry to protect steel columns and structural elements helped the building withstand the attacks. Restoration of the building after the attacks took three years, at a cost of $1.4 billion.

The south and east facades of the The Verizon Building (140 West Street) were heavily damaged in the September 11 attacks, from the collapse of the adjacent 7 World Trade Center, as well as the collapse of the Twin Towers. No fires were observed in the building on September 11.

The building's older design utilizes thick masonry and gives the building added strength, which helped the building withstand the attacks and remain structurally sound. The building has thick, heavy masonry in the exterior infill walls, which encloses the building's steel frame. Brick, cinder, concrete and other masonry materials encase interior steel columns, beams, girders and other structural elements. The masonry allowed the structure to absorb much of the energy from debris hitting the building. Nonetheless, the building had extensive damage to its east and south facades. Underground cable vaults belonging to Verizon, along with other underground utility infrastructure were also heavily damaged from water and debris.

The building, which has been called "one of the most significant structures in skyscraper design", was the longtime corporate headquarters of Verizon Communications.

The The Verizon Building (375 Pearl Street) played an important part in recovering service to the police department in the attacks of September 11, 2001.

90 West Street (alternatively West Street Building) is a building in Lower Manhattan, New York City designed by architect Cass Gilbert and structural engineer Gunvald Aus for the West Street Improvement Corporation. When completed in 1907, the building's Gothic styling and ornamentation served to emphasize its 23-story height, and foreshadowed Gilbert's later work on the Woolworth Building. Originally built as an office building, the main tenant was the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad and the top floor was occupied by Garret's Restaurant, which advertised itself as the "world's highest restaurant".

Located on West Street, between Cedar and Albany Streets, just south of the World Trade Center site, the building had a view to the Hudson River before Battery Park City was built on fill across West Street.

In 1998, the building's exterior was designated an architectural landmark by the city's Landmarks Preservation Commission. In 2006, it received a National Preservation Honor Award from the National Trust for Historic Preservation. Restoration of the lobby revealed some of Gilbert's original terra cotta work that had been covered over during an earlier modernization project. During this restoration, the copper roof was replaced and replacement gargoyles were added. The building was converted into apartments and reopened on March 7, 2005.

The building was severely damaged in the September 11 attacks when the south tower of the World Trade Center collapsed directly across the street. Scaffolding which had been erected on the facade for renovation work did nothing to stop the fiery debris from raining into the building and tearing a gash deep down its northern face. Two office workers were killed when they were trapped in an elevator. The firestorm raged out of control for several days; the building, which had housed businesses including Hanover Capital, Frost & Sullivan, and IKON Office Solutions, was completely gutted. It is believed that 90 West's heavy building materials and extensive use of terra cotta inside and out helped serve as fireproofing and protected it from further damage and collapse, as opposed to the more modern skyscraper at 7 World Trade Center, which suffered similar damage and collapsed later that day.

On November 26, 2007, a mammoth sewer pipe burst open into the bottom floors of 90 West from the World Trade Center construction site, damaging dozens of luxury cars and causing a two week evacuation of the building.

90 Chutch Street suffered moderate damage during the September 11 attacks due to a remnant of one of the planes and other debris landing on top of the building. Following the collapse of the World Trade Centers twin towers, the building's facade was damaged, windows were broken, and major water damage occurred. It was also extensively contaminated with asbestos, lead dust, fungi, fiberglass dust, mercury, and bacteria. There was no major structural damage. During recovery efforts at Ground Zero, the United States Postal Service worked to return individual pieces of mail found by rescue workers to the addressees. In August 2004, the Church Street Station Post Office reopened, and mail was once again being processed there. Church Street Station also serves the 10007 zip code, covering portions of Battery Park City, TriBeCa, and the area surrounding New York City Hall.

3 World Trade Center was at full capacity onn September 11, 2001, with over 1,000 registered guests. In addition, the National Association for Business Economics (NABE) was holding its yearly conference at the hotel.

A commonly reported story of eyewitnesses inside The Mall at the World Trade Center at the moment in which the American Airlines Flight 11 struck the North Tower is of fireballs fed by flaming jet fuel shooting down the elevator shafts and bursting out at the lobby. Many fireballs reached as far as the mall itself.

Floors 4 through 9 of Five World Trade Center (5 WTC) suffered partial collapse and/or fire damage during the September 11 attacks. Floors 1–3 were undamaged. Some of the collapse was due to impact from steel and debris from World Trade Center 1 (North Tower). Other collapsed sections were due to fire damage. Portions of internal collapse and burnout were found on upper floors, mainly floors 6–8. The exterior facade suffered severe fire damage. The upper floors (5–9) were on fire after the second tower collapse. A section of the fuselage allegedly from United Airlines Flight 175 is claimed to have landed on the top of the building. WTC 5 was the least damaged building of the complex. The Borders bookstore was undamaged after both towers collapsed. The building, was the location of the Survivors' Staircase, which was recovered from the building's underground after 5 World Trade Center was demolished.

The building was demolished by weakening its internal structure and using cables to pull down the rest of the structure, the same way 4 World Trade Center and 6 World Trade Center were demolished. The last standing section of 5 WTC was removed by December 1, 2001.

The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)/ASCE Building Performance Study Team found that some connections between the structural steel beams failed in the fire. This was most apparent in the collapse of 5 World Trade Center, where the fireproofing did not protect the connections, causing the structure to fail. The structural failure didn't cause the entire building to collapse, as seen after the attacks that the structural skeleton remained intact.

2 World Trade Center will stand at the site where the original 5 World Trade Center once stood.

  • As stated in the 9/11 Commission Report:
"The Port Authority's on-site commanding police officer was standing in the concourse when a fireball exploded out of the North Tower lobby, causing him to dive for cover."
  • Survivor Allison Summers described the conditions in the mall right after the terrorist attack:

"I had almost reached the [Cortlandt Street] Uptown 1 and 9 station when there was an enormous explosion. The building shook. I heard people say, 'Oh, no.' Some, not many, were screaming. ... I looked ahead past Banana Republic, past Citibank to the plaza outside. At that moment, there was a terrifying tidal wave of smoke filling the doorway. It began to shoot forward. The smoke had this enormous momentum that started to come towards us, as if it had a will of its own. We ran. We ran together past the Coach store. We ran to get out of the path of this enormous wave of smoke. It was like we were being chased. All the people on the concourse ran. We turned right, heading toward the PATH trains. As we ran, shop assistants were calling in doorways, 'What happened? What happened?' But we were running so fast we couldn't answer them and they ran with us. Some people were crying; some people were screaming. We moved as one body. No one pushed and no one shoved. We all had the same intention: to get out of the building."

Shortly after the first impact, water began spraying into the mall from the broken or activated sprinklers. As Erik Ronningen describes,

"I drag my body down through the decimated main lobby [of the North Tower], through a waterfall from the Mall ceiling, and wade the darkened Mall corridor through 75 yards [69 m] of ankle-deep water to Tower Two."

  • The buildings directly involved.
  1. WTC 2 South Tower
  2. WTC 1 North Tower
  3. 7 World Trade Center
  4. St. Nicholas Greek Orthodox Church
  5. Marriott Hotel  3 WTC
  6. South Plaza  4 WTC
  7. U.S. Customs 6 WTC
  8. FDNY 10 Firehouse
  9. The Deutsche Bank Building on 130 Liberty Street (5 WTC
  10. World Trade Center station (PATH)
  11. Borough of Manhattan Community College's Fiterman Hall
  12. 90 West Street
  13. The Verizon Building (140 West Street)
  14. The Verizon Building (375 Pearl Street)
  15. World Financial Center buildings
  16. One Liberty Plaza
  17. Millenium Hilton
  18. 90 Church Street
  19. The Mall at the World Trade Center
  20. West St/Vesey St. bus stop and shelter
  21. World Trade Center (1973–2001), a ledger of building statistics

Tenants at the time of the attacks

Death toll, material losses and fiscal losses

Overview

HEROES OF 9 11 (SEPTEMBER 11 HISTORY DOCUMENTARY)-0

HEROES OF 9 11 (SEPTEMBER 11 HISTORY DOCUMENTARY)-0

Special shows how the bravery of two men in the World Trade Center's North Tower changed the lives of countless people on 9/11. Through interviews with survivors, archival footage, and recreations, viewers will learn how construction manager Frank De Martini and construction inspector Pablo Ortiz saved 77 people on the tower's 88th floor and inspired others to do the same.

The Twin Towers of the World Trade Center collapsed on September 11, 2001, as a result of being struck by two jet airliners hijacked by 10 terrorists affiliated with al-Qaeda during the September 11 attacks. Two of the four hijacked airliners crashed into the Twin Towers, one into the North Tower (1 World Trade Center) and the other into the South Tower (2 World Trade Center). The collapse of the Twin Towers destroyed the rest of the complex, and debris from the collapsing towers severely damaged or destroyed more than a dozen other adjacent and nearby structures. The South Tower collapsed at 9:59 am, less than an hour after being hit by the second hijacked airliner, and at 10:28 am the North Tower collapsed. Later that day, 7 World Trade Center collapsed at 5:21 pm from fires that had started when the North Tower collapsed. As a result of the attacks to the towers, a total of 2,763 people died. Of the people who died in and within the towers, 2,192 were civilians, 343 were firefighters, and 71 law enforcement officers. Aboard the two airplanes, 147 civilians and 10 hijackers also died.

Death toll lists

FDNY Squad 1, Brooklyn, lost half of its squad at the World Trade Center in the September 11 attacks. The squad would be the most devastated FDNY unit impacted by the collapse of the Twin Towers losing 12 members, which included:

  1. B.C. James M. Amato
  2. Capt. Michael Esposito
  3. Lt. Edward A. D'Atri
  4. Lt. Michael N. Fodor
  5. Lt. David J. Fontana
  6. Lt. Michael Thomas Russo Sr.
  7. Gary R. Box
  8. Thomas M. Butler
  9. Peter J. Carroll
  10. Robert Joseph Cordice
  11. Matthew David Garvey
  12. Stephen Gerard Siller

The following list details the number of deaths reported by companies in business premises at the World Trade Center. The list includes WTC tenants (all buildings), vendors, visitors, independent emergency responders, and some hijacked passenger-related firms.

9\11 dead (excluding emergency workers and not identifying foriegen nationals)
Company Tower Floors Deaths
Cantor Fitzgerald North 101-105 658
Marsh & McLennan North 93-100 295
Aon Corporation South 92, 98-105 175
Fiduciary Trust International South 90, 94-97 87
Windows on the World North 106-107 72
Carr Futures North 92 69
Keefe, Bruyette & Woods South 85, 88-89 67
Sandler O'Neill & Partners South 104 66
Euro Brokers Inc. South 84 61
New York State Department of Taxation and Finance South 86-87 39
Port Authority of New York and New Jersey North 3,14,19,24,28,31,34 37
Fred Alger Management North 93 35
Fuji Bank South 79-82 23
Forte Food Service North Cantor Fitzgerald 21
ABM Industries Both N/A 17
Risk Waters Group North Windows on the World 16
General Telecom North 83 13
Washington Group International South 91 12
American Express North 94 11
Summit Security Services Both N/A 11
Morgan Stanley Both North: 59-74; South: 43-46, 56, 59-74 10
Empire Blue Cross Blue Shield Association North 27-28, 30-31 8
Alliance Consulting North 102 7
Accenture North Windows on the World 6
Harvey Young Yurman Inc. North Windows on the World 6
Bronx Builders North Windows on the World 5
Forest Electric Corp. North Cantor Fitzgerald 5
Harris Beach LLP South 85 5
OCS Security Throughout Complex N/A 5
Regus South 93 5
Baseline Financial Services South 77-78 4
Compaq North Windows on the World 4
Data Synapse North Windows on the World 4
International Office Centers North 79 4
Merrill Lynch North Windows on the World 4
Mizuho Capital South 80 4
Oracle Corporation North 99 4
Pitney Bowes South 102 4
Wachovia Corp. North 47 4
Zurich American Insurance North: 2
South: 2
105 4
Bank of America North 81 3
Bank of New York N/A Killed by falling debris 3
Bloomberg L.P. North Windows on the World 3
Callixa North Windows on the World 3
The Chuo Mitsui Trust and Banking Co. South 83 3
Citibank North: 1; Subway: 1; N/A: 1 105 3
Encompys North Windows on the World 3
IPC Kleinknecht Electric Co. North 105 3
IQ Financial Systems South 83 3
New York State Department of Transportation North 82 3
Reinsurance Solutions Inc. North 94 3
Structure Tone North: 1
South: 2
97, 105 3
SunGard South 102,104 3
Thomson Financial Services North Windows on the World 3
Advantage Security Both N/A 2
BP Air Conditioning North 101 2
Certified Installation Services South 105 2
Denino Electric North 95 2
Deutsche Bank WTC 4 N/A 2
Devonshire Group North 94 2
Fine Painting and Decorating South Observation Deck 2
First Commercial Bank N/A N/A 2
FM Global South 102 2
Franklin Templeton Investments South 95 2
Genuity South 110 2
Guy Carpenter North 94 2
Imagine Software North Windows on the World 2
Instinet (Reuters) North 13-14 2
Studley, Inc. North 86, 88 2
Keane South 78 2
Kidder Peabody-Paine Webber North 101 2
Marriott World Trade Center Hotel N/A N/A 2
Metropolitan Life Insurance North 89 2
New York Presbyterian Hospital N/A N/A 2
Nishi-Nippon Bank North 102 2
Nomura Research Institute Ltd. North Windows on the World 2
Ohrenstein & Brown North 85 2
One Source Networks (Hudson Shatz) N/A N/A 2
P.E. Stone Inc. Both North: 92
South: 105
2
Petrocelli Electric N/A Morgan Stanley Offices 2
Radianz North Windows on the World 2
Random Walk Computing North 80 2
Reuters North Windows on the world 2
Rohde & Liesenfeld North 20, 32-33 2
Silverstein Properties South 88 2
Slam Dunk Networks North 101 2
Sybase North Above Impact Zone 2
UBS-PaineWebber N/A Outside Towers 2
UME Voice North Windows on the World 2
Verizon South 9-12 2
Vestek South 78 2
Xerox South Basement Level 2
Zurich Scudder Investments North Windows on the World 2
A.L. Sarroff N/A N/A 1
Advent Corporation North Roof 1
AGI South 103 1
Algorithmics Inc. North Windows on the World 1
Allendale Insurance South 102 1
American Stock Exchange North Windows on the World 1
Aramark Corp South Observation Deck 107 5 Co-worker
ARC Partners North Windows on the World 1
ASAP NetSource N/A N/A 1
Association of Independent Recruiters North 79 1
Avalon Partners North 83 1
BEA Systems North Windows on the World 1
Bear Stearns N/A N/A 1
BMO Nesbitt Burns North Cantor Fitzgerald 1
Boston Investor Services North Windows on the World 1
Brinks N/A Basement 1
Cabrini Hospice N/A N/A 1
Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft North Windows on the World 1
Cambridge Technology Partners North Windows on the World 1
Caplin Systems North Windows on the World 1
CBS North 110 1
Chase Manhattan Bank N/A N/A 1
Civilian Complaint Review Board (Heart Attack) N/A N/A 1
Colonial Art Decorators North Windows on the World 1
Consolidated Edison N/A N/A 1
Credit Suisse First Boston North Windows on the World 1
Cultural Institution of Retirement Systems North 39 1
Deloitte Consulting North Marsh & McLennan 1
Empire Distribution N/A N/A 1
EnPointe Technologies N/A N/A 1
F.M. Global South 105 1
Federal Bureau of Investigation N/A N/A 1
Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation North Windows on the World 1
Fine & Schapiro restaurant N/A N/A 1
First Liberty Investment Group North 79 1
Forest Hills Ambulance Corps N/A N/A 1
Frank W.Lin & Co. North 89 1
G.M.P. Inc. North Cantor Fitzgerald 1
Garban Intercapital North 25-26 1
GoldTier Technologies North Windows on the World 1
Health Canada South 105 1
Hill International North 64 1
Holland & Knight N/A N/A 1
Howard Hughes Medical Institute N/A N/A 1
IBM Global North 95 1
Industrial Bank of Japan North Cantor Fitzgerald 1
Insurance Overload Systems North 79 1
Internal Revenue Service N/A N/A 1
Janus Capital Group North Windows on the World 1
Jennison Associates North Windows on the World 1
Krestrel Technologies North 105 1
LaBranche & Co. South 28-30 1
Lanagan Engineering and Environmental Services N/A N/A 1
Lee Hecht Harrison South 93 1
Lehman Brothers North 38-40 1
LG Insurance Co. N/A N/A 1
Liberty Electrical Supply Inc. N/A Basement 1
LION Bioscience AG South 94 1
LJ Gonzer N/A N/A 1
MAS Security North Windows on the World 1
May Davis Group North 89 1
McKeon-Grano South 66 1
Metrocare N/A N/A 1
Mitsui Bank South 83 1
MoneyLine North Windows on the World 1
NanoTek N/A Basement 1
National Acoustics Inc. North 103 1
NTX Interiors North 102 1
Office Centers Corp. North 79 1
Optus North Windows on the World 1
Pfizer Inc. North Windows on the World 1
PM Contracting North 103 1
Proven Electrical Contracting Inc. N/A N/A 1
QRS Corp. Marriott World Trade Center 17 1
Reliable N/A N/A 1
Rent-a-PC North Windows on the World 1
Risk Solutions International North Marsh & McLennan 1
Royal & SunAlliance South AON 1
Royston and Zamani South Fuji Bank 1
Scient North Cantor Fitzgerald 1
Seabury & Smith Co. South 49 1
Sidley Austin Brown & Wood North 54, 56-59 1
Siemens N/A Killed by Falling Debris 1
Signature Painting and Decorating North Cantor Fitzgerald 1
Singer Frumento LLP South 104 1
Skidmore, Owings & Merrill South AON 1
Sodexo North 96 1
Soundtone Floors Inc. N/A N/A 1
Sweeney and Heeking Carpentry N/A N/A 1
Syncorp North Marsh & McLennan 1
TCG Software North Windows on the World 1
Telekurs USA North Windows on the World 1
The Westfield Group South 17 1
ThyssenKrupp N/A N/A 1
Top of the World Trade Center Observatories\Top of the World Cafe South 107, 110 1
UBS Warburg North Windows on the World 1
United Staffing North Cantor Fitzgerald 1
Vanderbilt Group Inc. South N/A 1
Vital Computer Services North Marsh & McLennan 1
WABC-TV North 110 1
WCBS-TV North 110 1
Wipro Technologies North 97 1
WNBC-TV North 110 1
WNET-TV North 110 1
World Trade Center N/A N/A 1
World Trade Center Project Renewal N/A N/A 1
WPIX-TV North 110 1
Nationalities of people on the plane American Airlines Flight 11.
Nationality Passengers Crew Total
United States 73 11 84
United States and  Israel 1 0 1
United Kingdom 1 0 1
Australia 1 0 1
Total 76 11 87
Nationalities of people on the plane United Airlines Flight 175.
Nationality Passengers Crew Total
United States 42 9 51
Canada 1 0 1
Germany 3 0 3
United Kingdom 1 0 1
Israel 1 0 1
El Salvador 1 0 1
Indonesia 1 0 1
Nepal 1 0 1
Total 51 9 60
  1. WTC 2 South Tower
  2. WTC 1 North Tower
  3. 7 World Trade Center
  4. St. Nicholas Greek Orthodox Church
  5. Marriott Hotel  3 WTC
  6. South Plaza  4 WTC
  7. U.S. Customs 6 WTC
  8. FDNY 10 Firehouse
  9. The Deutsche Bank Building on 130 Liberty Street (5 WTC
  10. World Trade Center station (PATH)
  11. Borough of Manhattan Community College's Fiterman Hall
  12. 90 West Street
  13. The Verizon Building (140 West Street)
  14. The Verizon Building (375 Pearl Street)
  15. World Financial Center buildings
  16. One Liberty Plaza
  17. Millenium Hilton
  18. 90 Church Street
  19. The Mall at the World Trade Center
  20. West St/Vesey St. bus stop and shelter
  21. World Trade Center (1973–2001), a ledger of building statistics

The Falling Man photograph

The Falling Man is a photograph taken by Associated Press photographer Richard Drew of a man falling from the North Tower of the World Trade Center at 9:41:15 a.m. during the September 11 attacks in New York City. The subject of the image, whose identity remains uncertain, was one of the people trapped on the upper floors of the skyscraper who either fell searching for safety or jumped to escape the fire and smoke. At least 200 people are believed to have fallen or jumped to their deaths that day while other estimates say the number is half of that or fewer. Officials could not recover or identify the bodies of those forced out of the buildings prior to the collapse of the towers. All deaths in the attacks except those of the hijackers were ruled to be homicides due to blunt trauma (as opposed to suicides). The New York City medical examiner's office said it does not classify the people who fell to their deaths on September 11 as "jumpers": "A 'jumper' is somebody who goes to the office in the morning knowing that they will commit suicide. These people were forced out by the smoke and flames or blown out."

The photograph gives the impression that the man is falling straight down; however, a series of photographs taken of his fall showed him to be tumbling through the air.

The photographer has noted that, in at least two cases, newspaper stories commenting on the image have attracted a barrage of criticism from readers who found the image "disturbing".

Lost artworks

Battery Park Sphere

The Sphere's back portion.

The Sphere-new One World Trade Center-2012

The Sphere in 2012 with new One World Trade Center under construction, visible in the distance.

Many works of art were destroyed in the collapse.

Many other works of art and valuable artifacts, found in safe deposit boxes located throughout the towers, were also destroyed. Two other sculptures were damaged, but not destroyed by the attacks. These are Red Cube by Isamu Noguchi and Joie de Vivre by Mark di Suvero, located down the street from the World Trade Center. They were repaired and still stand today.

Immediate response

Three high-level politicians and a General, all displaying grim facial expressions, flank the main speaker.

Eight hours after the attacks, Donald Rumsfeld, then U.S. Secretary of Defense, declares "The Pentagon is functioning."

Bush 9-11 on phone

George W. Bush gets a briefing on the attacks.

At 8:32 a.m., FAA officials were notified Flight 11 had been hijacked and they in turn notified the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD). They had just received a call from American Airlines that hostesses had sky phone them a short while earlyer to say their aircraft were being skyjacked. Boston ARTCC bypassed standard protocols and directly contacted the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) Northeast Air Defense Sector (NEADS) in Rome, New York. NEADS called on two F-15 fighter jets at Otis Air Force Base in Mashpee, Massachusetts, to intercept. Officials at Otis spent a few minutes getting authorization for the fighters to take off. Atta completed the final turn towards Manhattan at 08:43.

NORAD scrambled two F-15s from Otis Air National Guard Base in Massachusetts and they were airborne by 8:53 a.m. Because of slow and confused communication from FAA officials, NORAD had 9 minutes' notice that Flight 11 had been hijacked, and no notice about any of the other flights before they crashed. After both of the Twin Towers had already been hit, more fighters were scrambled from Langley Air Force Base in Virginia at 9:30 a.m. At 10:20 a.m. Vice President Dick Cheney issued orders to shoot down any commercial aircraft that could be positively identified as being hijacked. However, these instructions were not relayed in time for the fighters to take action. Some fighters took to the air without live ammunition, knowing that to prevent the hijackers from striking their intended targets, the pilots might have to intercept and crash their fighters into the hijacked planes, possibly ejecting at the last moment.

For the first time in U.S. history, SCATANA was invoked, thus stranding tens of thousands of passengers across the world. The FAA closed American airspace to all international flights, causing about five hundred flights to be turned back or redirected to other countries. Canada received 226 of the diverted flights and launched Operation Yellow Ribbon to deal with the large numbers of grounded planes and stranded passengers.

The 9/11 attacks had immediate effects upon the American people. Police and rescue workers from around the country took leaves of absence, traveling to New York City to help recover bodies from the twisted remnants of the Twin Towers. Blood donations across the U.S. surged in the weeks after 9/11.

The deaths of adults in the attacks resulted in over 3,000 children losing a parent. Subsequent studies documented children's reactions to these actual losses and to feared losses of life, the protective environment in the aftermath of the attacks, and effects on surviving caregivers.

Global response

Vladimir Putin in the United States 13-16 November 2001-48

Russian President Vladimir Putin writes a message of condolence at a makeshift memorial wall to the international victims of the September 11 attacks near the World Trade Center site in November 2001. Attribution: Kremlin.ru

Iranianwomenmothersqcandle

Iranian girl with her mother turning candle light at Tehran, remembering the September 11 attacks. Author= Azartash at English Wikipedia

Reactions to the September 11 attacks included condemnation from world leaders, other political and religious representatives and the international media, as well as numerous memorials and services all over the world. The attacks were widely condemned by the governments of the world, including those traditionally considered hostile to the United States, such as Cuba, Iran, Libya, and North Korea. However, in a few cases celebrations of the attacks were also reported, and some groups and individuals accused the United States in effect of bringing the attacks on itself.

Iraq's government initially supported it, as did the majority of the people in Sunni Central Iraq, Afghanistan, Saudi Arabia and Palestine. Some also selibrated in Jordan, southern England, central Scotland, Germany and Pakistan's tribal territories (especialy Waziristan) on the Afghan border).

Many countries introduced anti-terrorism legislation and froze the bank accounts of businesses and individuals they suspected of having connections with al-Qaeda and its leader Osama bin Laden, the accused perpetrators of the attacks.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1368 condemned the attacks, and expressed readiness to take all necessary steps to respond and combat all forms of terrorism in accordance with their Charter. Numerous countries introduced anti-terrorism legislation and froze bank accounts they suspected of al-Qaeda ties. Law enforcement and intelligence agencies in a number of countries arrested alleged terrorists.

Initial opinions and analysis

World Trade Center 9-11 Attacks Illustration with Bird's-eye Impact Locations

Impact locations on 1 and 2 WTC.

World Trade Center 9-11 Attacks Illustration with Vertical Impact Locations

Impact locations for 1 WTC (right) and 2 WTC (left).

In the immediate aftermath of the attacks, numerous structural engineers and experts spoke to the media, describing what they thought caused the towers to collapse. Abdolhassan Astaneh-Asl, a structural engineering professor at the University of California at Berkeley, explained that the high temperatures in the fires weakened the steel beams and columns, causing them to become "soft and mushy", and eventually they were unable to support the structure above. Astaneh also suggested that the fireproofing became dislodged during the initial aircraft impacts. He also explained that, once the initial structural failure occurred, progressive collapse of the entire structure was inevitable. Cesar Pelli, who designed the Petronas Towers in Malaysia and the World Financial Center in New York, remarked, "no building is prepared for this kind of stress."

On September 13, 2001, Zdeněk Bažant, professor of civil engineering and materials science at Northwestern University, circulated a draft paper with results of a simple analysis of the World Trade Center collapse. Bažant suggested that heat from the fires was a key factor, causing steel columns in both the core and the perimeter to weaken and experience deformation before losing their carrying capacity and buckling. Once more than half of the columns on a particular floor buckled, the overhead structure could no longer be supported and complete collapse of the structures occurred. Bažant later published an expanded version of this analysis. Other analyses were conducted by MIT civil engineers Oral Buyukozturk and Franz-Josef Ulm, who also described a collapse mechanism on September 21, 2001. They later contributed to an MIT collection of papers on the WTC collapses edited by Eduardo Kausel called The Towers Lost and Beyond.

The aftermath of the 9/11 attack resulted in immediate responses to the event, including domestic reactions, hate crimes, Muslim responses to the event, international responses to the attack, and military responses to the events. An extensive compensation program was quickly established by Congress in the aftermath to compensate the victims and families of victims of the 9/11 attack as well.

The NATO casus foederis is enacted

Article 5 of the NATO treaty is it's casus foederis. It commits each member state to consider an armed attack against one member state to be an armed attack against them all. It was invoked only once so far and it was done by the United States after the September 11 attacks in 2001. Apparently, the governments of Spain, Portugal, the Netherlands, Luxembourg and Denmark showed no overt sympathy to the USA or any condemnation of the attacks, unlike their citizens. If they did not actually offer any covert help either and really meant to see America swing, then they thus breached the treaty's mutual defense aspect. The UK, Australia, New Zealand, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Greece, the USA, Canada, France, Israel and Turkey increased there diplomatic and espionage activity in the Middle East activate in order to stop any immediate threats to U.S. assets in the region. 

Eurosceptics still maintain the 9\11 attacks were faked by the American government, were not any were as bad as they are said to be, were a heroic blow for freedom, were a Israeli/Jewish plot and or a de facto comedic event\ de jure legal rather than a blood thirsty war crime.

The UN's opinion on flying civil aircraft in to buildings\'plain slamming'

The UN regards events like 9\11 as illegal because it is horrifically indiscriminate and lethal. Most British people (especially Eurosceptics) have yet to realize this and regard the horrific, dishonest, indiscriminate and\or disproportionate use of force as legitimate, appropriate, cool and\or comedic.

The terrorists' Motives

Osama bin Laden's declaration of a holy war against the United States, and a 1998 fatwā (a holy death warrant) signed by bin Laden and others, calling for the killing of Americans, are seen by investigators as evidence of his motivation. In bin Laden's November 2002 "Letter to America", he explicitly stated that al-Qaeda's motives for their attacks include:

  1. U.S. support of Israel.
  2. support for the "attacks against Muslims" in Somalia.
  3. support of Russian "atrocities against Muslims" in Chechnya.
  4. pro-American governments in the Middle East (who "act as your agents") being against Muslim interests.
  5. support of Indian "oppression against Muslims" in Kashmir.
  6. the presence of U.S. troops in Saudi Arabia.
  7. the sanctions against Iraq.

Others have argued that 9/11 was a strategic move with the objective of provoking America into a war that would incite a pan-Islamic revolution.

7 plausible conspiracy theories

Unusual activities at the world trade center before 911

Unusual activities at the world trade center before 911

Scholars for 9/11 Truth and Justice (Scholars) is a non-partisan organization consisting of independent researchers and activists engaged in uncovering the true nature of the September 11, 2001 attacks. Scholars emphasizes a scholarly and civil approach to inquiry. While researchers affiliated with universities comprise a portion of the group, membership is not limited to individuals with academic affiliations.

Architects and Engineers On 9 11! Excellent Must See!-0

Architects and Engineers On 9 11! Excellent Must See!-0

Check out this best ever 9/11 technical analysis by architectural and engineering experts, pretty much proves 9/11 is a lie, even to dyed in the wool deniers.

How to Debunk 9 11 Conspiracy Theories Truthers Explained (2006)

How to Debunk 9 11 Conspiracy Theories Truthers Explained (2006)

How to Debunk 9/11 Conspiracy Theories: Truthers Explained (2006). 9/11 conspiracy theories attribute the planning and execution of the September 11 attacks to parties other than, or in addition to, al-Qaeda or claim there was advanced knowledge of the attacks among high-level government officials.For mor from Shermer: https://www.amazon.com/gp/search?ie=UTF8&tag=mg03-20&linkCode=ur2&linkId=3dabfe21424218135b12f7b1d4972cf5&camp=1789&creative=9325&index=books&keywords=michael%20shermer.

Political theories

  • The CIA ran Ossama Bin Lardin as a double agent to wind up gullible young would-be jihadists as a sinister black opps mission. When they did 9\11, the U.S. government used it both to dupe George Bush and to publicly justify invading the Gulf, in which they betrayed Ossama BinLardin and planned to have him liquidated soon afterwards. Oil, gas, power, Islamophobia, Israel, Turkey, Russia, Iran, Arabphobia and Saddam Hussein were all cited as possible motives, but talk on motives is only speculation. 

Structural issues

  • The Twin Towers were designed not to totally collapses due to the intrinsic value of how skyscrapers are made. The tops would have come down as well as the stuff that got blown up, but not a 100% collapses in to the foundations, unless it was either very heavily bombed at ground level or had the structural integrity of the buildings' steel core fatally compromised in the event or by either sabotage or poor construction work in it's building and\or casting at the steel mill prior to use.
  • The Twin Towers also collapsed downwards (pancaking) instead of sideways in to the path of the aircraft like a tree falling on to the side the wedge is cut out of or away from them like a tree falling away from were a wedge is driven in to it.
  • 7 WTC collapsed after minimal visible damage and modest fires, in 7 second, with a full symmetry on-top of it's footprint in a collapse pattern reminiscent of controlled demolition of an unwanted office block or residential tower block.

Corrupted of incompetent spies

  • The American establishment ignored CIA, FAA, FBI, Pakistani, Saudi Arabian, Iranian, British, Libyan, Indian, Northern Alliance of Afghanistan and Malaysian security services' rumors and hints, as well as a few cryptic comments by Saddam Hussies and the Taliban.

The FAA screwed up and\or sold out

  • The FAA's command center contradicted Boston ARTCC by feeding misleading info such a wrong aircraft N-numbers, known pre-hijack flight data, post-hijack routes, last known locations, etc, on to NEADS' command center and\or NORAD so they could not find and shoot down the aircraft.

This allowed the attack on the Pentagon (there was enough time to act) and possibly the attack on the second Twin Tower (the timing was close). The fourth jet, United Airlines Flight 93, who crashed into a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania, after passengers attempted to take control before it could reach the hijacker's intended target in Washington, D.C., could also been shot down in time.

Zim Integrated Shipping Services Ltd. knew it all!

  • One week before 9\11, Zim Integrated Shipping Services Ltd., suddenly left the WTC after 30 years with out no apparent long term reason to. Did they know what was going on and chose not to tell any one else so they could take advantage of the attack to further their own independent corporate plots against their business rivals!

Memorials

9-11 Wall segment

A surviving portion of the wall from the Twin Towers.

Wtc-2004-memorial

2004 Tribute in Light memorial.

REBUILD - From The Ashes, The World Trade Center Rises Again-0

REBUILD - From The Ashes, The World Trade Center Rises Again-0

Tom Hanks narrates a documentary short film about the rebuilding of the World Trade Center site, as a metaphor for the rekindling of our spirit since the dark days of 9/11. Directed by Eddie Rosenstein, Produced by Eyepop Productions, Inc. Co-directed by Rick Velleu, executive produced by Stephen Flynn and Sean Burke, this film premiered on September 8th at the 9/11 Tenth Anniversary Summit: Remembrance, Renewal, Resilience, in Washington D.C. The Summit kicked off a national movement to foster community and national resilience in the face of future crises. See www.road2resilience.org to become a part of the campaign to build a more resilient world.

Windows of Hope Family Relief Fund was organized soon after the attacks to provide support and services to the families of those in the food, beverage, and hospitality industries who had been killed on September 11 in the World Trade Center. Windows on the World executive chef Michael Lomonaco and owner-operator David Emil were among the founders of that fund.

The first memorials to the victims of the September 11 attacks in 2001 began to take shape online, as hundreds of webmasters posted their own thoughts, links to the Red Cross and other rescue agencies, photos, and eyewitness accounts. Numerous online September 11 memorials began appearing a few hours after the attacks, although many of these memorials were only temporary. Around the world, U.S. embassies and consulates became makeshift memorials as people came out to pay their respects.

The Tribute in Light was the first major physical memorial at the World Trade Center site. A permanent memorial and museum, the National September 11 Memorial & Museum at the World Trade Center, were built as part of the design for overall site redevelopment. The Memorial consists of two massive pools set within the original footprints of the Twin Towers with 30-foot (9.1 m) waterfalls cascading down their sides. The names of the victims of the attacks are inscribed around the edges of the waterfalls. Other permanent memorials are being constructed around the world.

In December 2001, a temporary viewing platform at Fulton Street, between Church Street and Broadway, opened to the public.

On March 11, 2002, 88 searchlights were installed and arranged to form two beams of light shooting straight up into the sky. This is called the Tribute in Light, and was originally lit every day at dusk until April 14, 2002. After that, the lights were lit on the two-year anniversary of the attack and have been lit on each subsequent September 11 since then.

One of the places that saw many memorials and candlelight vigils was Pier A in Hoboken, New Jersey, directly across from the World Trade Center. There was also a memorial service on March 11, 2002, at dusk on Pier A when the Tribute in Light first turned on, marking the half-year anniversary of the terrorist attack. A permanent September 11 memorial for Hoboken, called Hoboken Island, was chosen in September 2004.

In August 2008, New York City firefighters donated a cross made of steel from the World Trade Center to the Shanksville Volunteer Fire Company. The beam, mounted atop a platform shaped like the Pentagon, was erected outside the Shanksville firehouse near the crash site of United Airlines Flight 93.

At the National September 11 Memorial, the names of the victims of Flight 175 are inscribed on the South Pool, on Panels S-2 – S-4.

Health effects arising from the September 11 attacks

Survivors were covered in dust after the collapse of the towers. Hundreds of thousands of tons of toxic debris containing more than 2,500 contaminants, including known carcinogens, were spread across Lower Manhattan due to the collapse of the Twin Towers. Exposure to the toxins in the debris is alleged to have contributed to fatal or debilitating illnesses among people who were at ground zero. The Bush administration ordered the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to issue reassuring statements regarding air quality in the aftermath of the attacks, citing national security, but the EPA did not determine that air quality had returned to pre-September 11 levels until June 2002.

Health effects extended to residents, students, and office workers of Lower Manhattan and nearby Chinatown. Several deaths have been linked to the toxic dust, and the victims' names were included in the World Trade Center memorial. Approximately 18,000 people have been estimated to have developed illnesses as a result of the toxic dust. There is also scientific speculation that exposure to various toxic products in the air may have negative effects on fetal development. A notable children's environmental health center is currently analyzing the children whose mothers were pregnant during the WTC collapse, and were living or working nearby. A study of rescue workers released in April 2010 found that all those studied had impaired lung functions, and that 30–40% were reporting little or no improvement in persistent symptoms that started within the first year of the attack.

Years after the attacks, legal disputes over the costs of illnesses related to the attacks were still in the court system. On October 17, 2006, a federal judge rejected New York City's refusal to pay for health costs for rescue workers, allowing for the possibility of numerous suits against the city. Government officials have been faulted for urging the public to return to lower Manhattan in the weeks shortly after the attacks. Christine Todd Whitman, administrator of the EPA in the aftermath of the attacks, was heavily criticized by a U.S. District Judge for incorrectly saying that the area was environmentally safe. Mayor Giuliani was criticized for urging financial industry personnel to return quickly to the greater Wall Street area.

The United States Congress passed the James L. Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act on December 22, 2010, and President Barack Obama signed the act into law on January 2, 2011. It allocated $4.2 billion to create the World Trade Center Health Program, which provides testing and treatment for people suffering from long-term health problems related to the 9/11 attacks. The WTC Health Program replaced preexisting 9/11-related health programs such as the Medical Monitoring and Treatment Program and the WTC Environmental Health Center program.

The culture of America succeeding the attacks is noted for heightened security and an increased demand thereof, as well as paranoia and anxiety regarding future terrorist attacks that includes most of the nation. Psychologists have also confirmed that there has been an increased amount of national anxiety in commercial air travel.

Economic effects arising from the September 11 attacks

The attacks had a significant economic impact on United States and world markets. The stock exchanges did not open on September 11 and remained closed until September 17. Reopening, the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) fell 684 points, or 7.1%, to 8921, a record-setting one-day point decline. By the end of the week, the DJIA had fallen 1,369.7 points (14.3%), at the time its largest one-week point drop in history. In 2001 dollars, U.S. stocks lost $1.4 trillion in valuation for the week.

In New York City, about 430,000 job-months and $2.8 billion dollars in wages were lost in the three months after the attacks. The economic effects were mainly on the economy's export sectors. The city's GDP was estimated to have declined by $27.3 billion for the last three months of 2001 and all of 2002. The U.S. government provided $11.2 billion in immediate assistance to the Government of New York City in September 2001, and $10.5 billion in early 2002 for economic development and infrastructure needs. Also hurt were small businesses in Lower Manhattan near the World Trade Center, 18,000 of which were destroyed or displaced, resulting in lost jobs and their consequent wages. Assistance was provided by Small Business Administration loans, federal government Community Development Block Grants, and Economic Injury Disaster Loans. Some 31,900,000 square feet (2,960,000 m2) of Lower Manhattan office space was damaged or destroyed. Many wondered whether these jobs would return, and if the damaged tax base would recover. Studies of the economic effects of 9/11 show the Manhattan office real-estate market and office employment were less affected than first feared, because of the financial services industry's need for face-to-face interaction.

North American air space was closed for several days after the attacks and air travel decreased upon its reopening, leading to a nearly 20% cutback in air travel capacity, and exacerbating financial problems in the struggling U.S. airline industry.

The September 11 attacks also led to the U.S. wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, as well as additional homeland security spending, totaling at least $5 trillion.

Cultural influence of 9/11

The impact of 9/11 extends beyond geopolitics into society and culture in general. Immediate responses to 9/11 included greater focus on home life and time spent with family, higher church attendance, and increased expressions of patriotism such as the flying of flags.

The radio industry responded by removing certain songs from playlists, and the attacks have subsequently been used as background, narrative or thematic elements in film, television, music and literature. Already-running television shows as well as programs developed after 9/11 have reflected post-9/11 cultural concerns.

9/11 conspiracy theories have become social phenomena, despite lack of support from expert scientists, engineers, and historians.

9/11 has also had a major impact on the religious faith of many individuals; for some it strengthened, to find consolation to cope with the loss of loved ones and overcome their grief; others started to question their faith or lost it entirely, because they could not reconcile it with their view of religion.

The culture of America succeeding the attacks is noted for heightened security and an increased demand thereof, as well as paranoia and anxiety regarding future terrorist attacks that includes most of the nation. Psychologists have also confirmed that there has been an increased amount of national anxiety in commercial air travel.

After the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center, "I Am the World Trade Center" toured briefly under the shortened name "I Am the World...", but later resumed playing under their original name.

Replacement building

Inside the new 1 World Trade Center

Inside the new 1 World Trade Center

CNNMoney gets a preview of what the new 1 World Trade Center building will look like when it opens at the end of 2014.

Take a tour of new One World Observatory

Take a tour of new One World Observatory

The One World Observatory officially opens Friday next week. Cool tech attractions include elevators that boast a virtual time-lapse of the New York City skyline and interactive tools that help visitors explore and learn about the city. Anthony Mason gets a behind-the-scenes look at the experience.

Two faces of One World Trade Center, and its originally chamfered base

Two faces of One World Trade Center, and its originally chamfered base

On the visual appearance of NYC’s tallest building, with references to its predecessors: the Twin Towers (square antiprisms and prismatic glass panels).

The entire World Trade Center site was destroyed in the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001; One World Trade Center was the first of the famous Twin Towers to be struck by a hijacked aircraft, at 8:46 a.m EDT, and the second tower to collapse, at 10:28 a.m. Of the 2,977 victims killed in the attacks, 1,402 were in or above the North Tower impact zone. The North Tower was replaced by the present-day One World Trade Center tower, which was opened in November 2014 as the lead building of the redeveloped World Trade Center site.

At 1,776 feet tall, the One World Trade Center is currently (as of 2016) the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere. The new office block was also developed by The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey.

Over the following years, plans were created for the reconstruction of the World Trade Center. The Lower Manhattan Development Corporation (LMDC), established in November 2001 to oversee the rebuilding process, organized competitions to select a site plan and memorial design. Memory Foundations, designed by Daniel Libeskind, was selected as the master plan; however, substantial changes were made to the design.

The first new building at the site was 7 WTC, which opened in May 2006. The memorial section of the National September 11 Memorial & Museum opened on September 11, 2011 and the museum opened in May 2014. 1 WTC opened on November 3, 2014; 4 WTC opened on November 13, 2013; and 3 WTC is under construction and expected to open in 2017. As of November 2013, according to an agreement made with Silverstein Properties Inc., the new 2 WTC will not be built to its full height until sufficient leasing is established to make the building financially viable. In Summer 2015, Silverstein Properties revealed plans for a redesigned Tower 2 with News Corp as the core tenant; the Bjarke Ingels-designed structure was expected to be finished by 2020. 5 WTC will be developed by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, but, as of February 2014, a schedule was not confirmed.

Park51

Park51 or Park 51 (originally named Cordoba House) was to be a 13-story Islamic community center in Lower Manhattan including a "Muslim community center and a mosque." The developers hoped to promote an interfaith dialogue within the greater community. Due to its location two blocks from the World Trade Center site, it has been widely and controversially referred to as the "Ground Zero mosque". Numerous commentators disputed that characterization.

Park51 would have replaced an existing 1850s building of Italianate style that was damaged in the September 11 attacks. The design included a 500-seat auditorium, theater, a performing arts center, a fitness center, a swimming pool, a basketball court, a childcare area, a bookstore, a culinary school, an art studio, a food court, and a memorial to the victims of the September 11 attacks. It included a prayer space for the Muslim community to accommodate 1,000–2,000 people. Park51 was designed by the Principal of SOMA, Michel Abboud, who wrestled for months with a key problem to make the building fit naturally into its surrounds in lower Manhattan: on the one hand, it should have a contemporary design, and, at the same time, it should look Islamic.

In late September 2011, a temporary 4,000-square-foot (370 m2) Islamic center opened in renovated space at the Park51 location. In summer 2014, it was announced that there will instead be a 3-story museum with a prayer space, as well as condos, at 49-51 Park Place. In September 2015, it was reported that the owner of the site now plans to build a 667-foot, 70-story luxury condominium building at the site to take advantage of the booming residential real estate market in Lower Manhattan.

References in popular culture

9/11 (film)

9/11 is a 2002 Fraco-American documentary film about the September 11 attacks in New York City, in which two planes crashed into the 1 WTC and 2 WTC buildings of the World Trade Center.

Other major appearances

It has appeared in may TV shows and films over the years including:

  1. The French Connection
  2. Klut or Klute
  3. The Hot Rock
  4. Godspell
  5. Imagine: John Lennon
  6. A Fool and His Money
  7. The Gang That Couldn't Shoot Straight
  8. Gangs of New York
  9. GasLand or Glass Land
  10. Get Well Soon
  11. Ghostbusters
  12. Ghostbusters II
  13. Twin Towers
  14. Fear City
  15. Fever
  16. Cop Land
  17. The 10th Kingdom
  18. 15 Minutes
  19. 200 Cigarettes
  20. 28 Days
  21. 29th Street
  22. 3 A.M.
  23. 30 Years to Life
  24. The 4th Floor
  25. 54
  26. 9/11
  27. Across the Sea of Time
  28. Aftershock: Earthquake in New York
  29. Alien Contamination
  30. All 4 the Money
  31. All I Want For Christmas
  32. All Over Me
  33. All the Vermeers in New York
  34. Borough of Kings
  35. Boss of Bosses
  36. Brooklyn's Finest
  37. Bullet
  38. World Traveler
  39. Wrong is Right
  40. X-Men
  41. X-Men: Apocalypse
  42. Xchange
  43. Year of the Dragon
  44. You Stupid Man
  45. Yeah Right!
  46. Zombie
  47. Zoolander
  48. Too Scared to Scream
  49. Town & Country
  50. The Toxic Avenger
  51. The Toxic Avenger Part II
  52. The Toxic Avenger Part III
  53. Citizen Toxie: The Toxic Avenger IV
  54. True Believer
  55. True Blood
  56. Turbulence

Never forget!

World Trade Center 1996

World Trade Center 1996

World Trade Center 1996.

The WTC, 1996

The WTC, 1996

Three years after the first attack, my brother and I decided to visit the WTC. It's a little strange seeing this video but, I'm glad I have it.

Standing on top of Twin Towers March 2000-0

Standing on top of Twin Towers March 2000-0

Footage from our visit to the World Trade Center in March, 2000, 1.5 years before the horrible event everyone remembers took place. I found it on an old tape and put it on the computer.

The Physics of 9 11-0

The Physics of 9 11-0

The physics of 9/11 attacks

9 11 1st Plane Hit Collection & WTC north tower south side, aircraft debris-0

9 11 1st Plane Hit Collection & WTC north tower south side, aircraft debris-0

Cameras capturing the plane and just after. WTC1 on 9/11, Plane parts, wheel, tire, fuselage, body parts in the streets. More airplane parts & debris collection found at: http://s1.zetaboards.com/pumpitout/topic/3213759/1/.

GROUND ZERO - SHOCKING 9 11 HISTORY DOCUMENTARY)-0

GROUND ZERO - SHOCKING 9 11 HISTORY DOCUMENTARY)-0

With exclusive access to the site of the World Trade Center disaster, this film takes an up-close look at the recovery work at Ground Zero. For months, filmmakers followed engineers, contractors, fire and police officials as they evaluated the damage, recovered remains, removed debris and prepared for the eventual rebuilding of the site. This documentary includes interviews with Mayor Bloomberg, Larry Silverstein, and community residents.

Nota Bene

SmogNY

Smog in New York City as viewed from the World Trade Center in 1988. Auteur: Dr. Edwin P. Ewing, Jr.

The term "World Trade Center"

World Trade Center may also refer to:

Other uses

Related issues

Also see

Incontrovertible 9 11

Incontrovertible 9 11

9/11 Documentary by Tony Rooke A film for Coppers & Fire Fighters by Coppers & Fire Fighters. Buy the standard definition DVD or Blu-ray version of the film from: http://www.incontrovertible911evidence.co.uk Please distribute copies of the film to serving police officers, fire fighters and military personnel. If you live in the UK, stop funding the purposes of terrorism. Section 15 Article 3 of the Terrorism Act (2000) states: (3) A person commits an offence if he— (a) provides money or other property, and (b) knows or has REASONABLE CAUSE to suspect that it will or may be used for the purposes of terrorism. This film gives us more than REASONABLE CAUSE to suspect that in the UK we are ALL guilty of funding the purposes of terrorism through our taxes and funding of the BBC. http://www.911-questions.com

  1. WTC 2 South Tower
  2. WTC 1 North Tower
  3. 7 World Trade Center
  4. St. Nicholas Greek Orthodox Church
  5. Marriott Hotel  3 WTC
  6. South Plaza  4 WTC
  7. U.S. Customs 6 WTC
  8. FDNY 10 Firehouse
  9. The Deutsche Bank Building on 130 Liberty Street (5 WTC)
  10. World Trade Center station (PATH)
  11. Borough of Manhattan Community College's Fiterman Hall
  12. 90 West Street
  13. The Verizon Building (140 West Street)
  14. The Verizon Building (375 Pearl Street)
  15. World Financial Center buildings
  16. One Liberty Plaza
  17. Millenium Hilton
  18. 90 Church Street
  19. The Mall at the World Trade Center
  20. West St/Vesey St. bus stop and shelter
  21. World Trade Center (1973–2001), a ledger of building statistics
  22. The Pentagon
  23. The White House
  24. Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station (combat operations center)
  25. Pennsylvania Station (1910–63)
  26. Terrorism
  27. Italicus Express bombing of 1974
  28. Civil aircraft
  29. Harlem- 1950-1990
  30. A political diorama
  31. Canary Wharf
  32. CIS Tower
  33. World Trade Center (1973–2001) tennants during 9\11
  34. The "Take Me to Havana!" Airline Hijackings of 1968 to 1973
  35. Terrorist organisations
  36. The 1973 Chilean coup d'état
  37. World Trade Center (1973–2001), a ledger of building statistics
  38. The 9/11 anniversary day

Sources

9 11 Experiments The Force Behind the Motion

9 11 Experiments The Force Behind the Motion

Why can't the experts demonstrate the force behind the motion? (see more) This is not an attempt in any way to build a scaled model of the towers. Rather, dissimilar objects can be used to study the motion of large objects as the direction and sequence of net force are both independent of scale. For example, the motion of a bucket on a rope whirled around your head is similar to the motion of the moon orbiting earth. The direction (not the magnitude) of net force acting on the bucket and the moon is similar, even though the bucket is not a scaled model of the moon. Any objects observed to accelerate similarly, will have the same direction and sequence of net force, regardless of scale. No one has been able to make a real model demonstrating the fundamental motions observed of the towers fall, using gravity alone.

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  755. https://www.yahoo.com/news/world-trade-center-seedlings-france-san-bernardino-orlando-184305629.html
  756. https://www.wtc.com/about/buildings/2-world-trade-center
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  759. https://www.wikiwand.com/en/List_of_tenants_in_One_World_Trade_Center
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